BF JOHNSON PUBLISHING CO RICHMOND VA
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES,
FIVE BOOKS, PAPER, 10 CENTS EACH.
ONE BOOK, CLOTH, 50 CENTS
Two Indian Boys.
Visit to a Strange Land.
Loss of a Silver Cup.
The First Governor.
The Tardy Governor.
John Lawson and the Alli-
The Carolina Pirate.
Tryon and the Regulators.
The Noble Four Hundred.
Cornwallis in a Hornets'
The Heroes of Mclntyre's.
Minute Men of the Hills.
Cornwallis on the Run.
A Strange Night Attack.
Lane's Search for Gold.
The Lord of Roanoke.
Story of Virginia Dare.
A Sad Grandfather.
The First Settlement.
Cattle Ranch on Cape F<~ar.
The Albemarle Boss. Capture of Fort Barnwell.
An Adventure on the Neuse. Capture of Fort Nahucke.
An Indian Massacre. King Blunt
British Stamps at Wilming- Second Sound of Liberty's
The Edenton Tea Party. The Fair Tory.
First Sound of Liberty's Bell. Defeat of the Tories.
Rough Riders of the Smokies. Adventures of an American
General Greene Without a Spy.
Penny. Death of the Bugler Boy.
The Fall of a Patriot. How Colonel Pyle Saved
A Brave Woman's Wit.
The Tory Bandit.
Hunter's Stone Steps.
The State of Franklin.
Story of Bath.
An Old-Time School.
B. F. JOHNSON PUBLISHING COMPANY,
W. C. ALLEN,
Superintendent Waynesville, N. C., City Schools
B. F. Johnson Publishing Company
Copyright, 1901, by W. C. Allen.
All rights reserved.
In presenting this little volume to the children of North Carolina
2J there are two objects in view:
2 1. To stimulate study in North Carolina history.
2. To give supplementary reading matter, containing interesting
" w For the promotion of these objects the author has selected events
> and incidents that have interest in themselves, and has told them in
words simple enough for a child to understand.
The stories close with the eighteenth century, and embrace a por-
c| tion of the two preceding centuries. If a desire to know more of
X. the history of North Carolina be aroused, the chief object of the
writer will have been attained.
J*| Thanks are due Dr. Richard Dillard, of Edenton, for facts relative
Q to the Edenton Tea Party, and to Major Graham Daves for valuable
Suggestions to Teachers
To get the best results from the use of this book, the following
suggestions may be helpful:
1. Let pupils study each story until it is thoroughly learned. To
accomplish this, have them write a topical outline. Pupils will
readily do this if they are assisted a few times by the teacher.
2. Let pupils read the story aloud in class by paragraphs. Do not
stop them for mispronunciations until the paragraph is finished.
3. Let a number of pupils write their topical outlines at the
board. Then let all read them and offer corrections and criticisms.
4. Call upon pupils to tell the story in their own words.
5. Let pupils write the story in their own words in a composi-
tion book for that purpose.
If this method, or one similar to it, be followed, much benefit will
Two Indian Boys , 9
Visit to a Strange Land 13
The Loss of a Silver Cup 17
Lane's Search for Gold 20
The Lord of Roanoke 25
Story- of Virginia Dare 29
A Sad Grandfather 34
The First Settlement 38
A Cattle Ranch on the Cape
The First Governor 7
The Tardy Governor 11
John Lawson and the Alli-
The Albemarle Boss 19
An Adventure on the Neuse. ... 24
An Indian Massacre 32
Capture of Fort Barnwell 36
Capture of Fort Nahucke 40
King Blunt 44
The Carolina Pirate 7
Daniel Boone 15
Tryon and the Regulators .... 23
British Stamps at Wilmington . 26
The Edentou Tea Party 31
First Sound of Liberty's Bell . . 35
Second Sound of Liberty's Bell 39
The Fair Tory 41
Defeat of the Tories 45
The Noble Four Hundred 9
Cornwallis in a Hornets' Nest. 13
The Heroes of Mclntyre's 17
Rough Riders of the Smokies . . 22
General Greene Without a
The Fall of a Patriot 31
Adventures of An American
Death of the Bugler Boy 39
How Colonel Pyle Saved
Minute Men of the Hills 9
Cornwallis on the Run 13
A Strange Night Attack 17
A Brave Woman's Wit. ....... 21
The Tory Bandit 25
Hunter's Stone Steps 29
The State of Franklin 33
Story of Bath 37
An Old-Time School . . 41
"He said good-bye to Mr. and Mrs. Dare, took little Virginia up in
his arms and kissed her several times." Page 30, Book 1.
North Carolina History Stories
TWO INDIAN BOYS
Three hundred years ago there were no white people
in North Carolina. Only Indians lived here. They
owned all the land, and lived in their wigwams near
their hunting grounds. They were very happy in their
homes in the forest. They knew nothing of the great
cities and fine people on the other side of the big ocean.
Little Indian boys and girls played games in the
fields and woods, and plucked the wild flowers with joy
and gladness, just as boys and girls do now. They
heard the birds sing and saw the squirrels and the deer
How happy they were as they chased the butterflies or
watched the birds build their nests in the trees!
The names of two of these Indian boys, who lived on
an island called Croatan, are well known. They were
Manteq and Manchese. They were about the same age,
and were brighter and more active than the other boys
cro tan' man'te o man che'ze
10 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
of the island. But they were as different from each
other as possible. Manteo was kind and obedient; but
Manchese was cruel and stubborn.
This difference, however, did not keep them from
being great friends. They were often together, and
fished and hunted side by side. They knew nothing of
other lands, but sometimes wondered where the big sea
ended and what was on the other side of it. So these
boys grew up to be men in this wild country, often
wishjng that they could see beyond the great sea.
They did not know how soon or in what way they would
get their wish.
One day, when Manteo and Manchese were about
eighteen years old, a wonderful thing happened. They
were going in a canoe to one of their fishing places to
see if their fish-traps had caught anything. Just as
they turned a bend in the shore line they came in full
view of a large ship anchored and standing perfectly
still in the smooth water. At first they were puzzled
and could not tell what the strange thing was. Man-
chese and another boy who was with them proposed to
turn back; but Manteo insisted upon going nearer.
"How can we miss this chance," said he, "which the
Great Spirit has given us to find out what this strange
TWO INDIAN BOXS 11
When they came nearer, men were seen moving
about on the great boat. They saw another boat just
beyond the first one. Then the boys guided, the canoe
towards the land and Manteo jumped ashore, saying
that he was going nearer. He was a brave boy and
wished to see what the strange sight meant. So he
walked along the beach to a place nearest the ships,
and beckoned to those on board.
These ships were from England, a great country
across the sea. They had been sent out by Sir Walter
Raleigh, a rich nobleman who lived in London, to see
what kind of a country this new world was that Colum-
bus and Cabot had found, and what kind of people lived
here. The captains of the ships were Philip Amidas
and Arthur Barlowe.
Seeing some one on the shore beckoning, Captain
Amidas and three other men let down one of the small
boats into the water and went over to where the Indian
was. Manteo made a long speech of welcome to them
in his own language, but the white men did not under-
stand him. He stepped into their boat and pointed to
the big ships, thus showing that he wanted to go to
them. The white men carried him to the ships and
took him on board.
raw'li am'i das
12 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
He was much astonished at everything, and walked
about on deck, looking at the curious things with the
eagerness of a child. Every piece of dress that the
sailors wore was new to him. He walked up to a sailor,
took his hat and put it on his own head. After wear-
ing it for a few moments, he returned the hat to the
owner, but showed by signs that he wanted one.
Captain Amidas presented him with a hat, which he
was overjoyed to receive, and gave him several pieces
of jewelry that pleased him very much. When he had
thanked Captain Amidas for what had been given him
he went back to his own boat and companions.
Soon he and the other two boys rowed out into the
sound and commenced fishing. In a little while they
had caught as many fish as their boat could hold. Com-
ing back to the shore, Manteo divided the fish into two
piles, and made signs to show that one pile was for one
ship and the other for the other ship. Having thus ex-
pressed his thanks in a practical manner, he and his
companions went home.
Thus it was that these Indian boys began to get a
glimpse of the world as it was across the big sea.
VISIT TO A STKANOE LAND
VISIT TO A STRANGE LAND
As Manteo and Manchese went home that day they
had many things about which to talk. They had seen
strange things and had heard strange sounds. They
talked about the large ships of the white men, their
guns and their swords. Nothing had ever stirred them
like the events of that day.
After talking of all the things that they had seen
and heard, they became silent as if some deeper
thought had entered their minds.
"I wonder where they came from and for what," said
"From over the sea toward the rising sun," replied
Manchese. "The Great Spirit has sent them to tell us
about the world across the big water."
"The world must be a fine place if it has such people
as those in it. I should like to see their wigwams,"
" So should I," answered Manchese. " They must be
Thus these Indian boys talked in their own lan-
guage until they reached home. They told their home
folks what wonderful things they had seen. All the
14 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
old men and young men and women listened eagerly.
Some of the braves were uneasy when they had heard
the boys' story. They said that .the palefaces had come
for no good. By far the larger number, however, were
glad that the strangers had come, and were willing to
give them a cordial welcome.
Next day a large number of the Indians went to see
the ships and to give a welcome to the Englishmen.
Manteo and Manchese went aboard the ships and were
greeted kindly by the sailors. For several days there-
after they went regularly and became intimate with
the white men. Frequently they went with exploring
parties that were sent out, and were very useful in
showing the way to certain places and in keeping the
other Indians friendly.
One day Manteo asked Manchese if he did not wish
to go across the big sea with the white men.
"These men are our friends," said Manteo, "and will
show us the wonderful things they have at home."
"There is danger in it," answered Manchese; "for they
may never come back here, and we could never find our
way across the great sea in our canoe."
"The Great Spirit will take care of us," said Manteo.
"He will never allow any harm to come to us if we trust
VISIT TO A STRANGE LAND 15
him. Let us go and see what great things these
strangers can show us."
Manchese consented. They agreed to ask the white
men next day to let them go back with them across the
sea. Captain Amidas and the others were glad for
them to go. So they got ready, and when the ships
were about to sail Manteo and Manchese were there.
They bade farewell to father and mother, sisters and
brothers, relatives and friends, and went on board.
The ships sailed away and were soon out of sight of
land. It was a pleasant voyage, and in a few weeks
land was sighted. They anchored on the west coast of
England. The Indian boys had enjoyed the trip across
the ocean very much; and now, as the ship approached
land, they were astonished at the beautiful sight that
There before them was a great city. They had ex-
pected to see wigwams like their own, except larger;
but instead there were great stone castles reaching
up into the clouds. They had never imagined anything
like it. Their eyes were dazzled. Indeed, they were
really alarmed at the greatness of everything.
They went ashore and their wonder increased. They
stared at the many strange things on every street. This
was indeed a strange land to them. They could not
conceal their wonder.
16 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Soon they were taken to London, and still their won-
der grew. They went to the palace of Queen Elizabeth
and into the presence of the queen herself. She re-
ceived them kindly and spoke some words to them, but
they could not understand her. They saw the splendors
of the palace, the fine gentlemen, and the beautiful
ladies with their gay dresses. It was another great
day in the lives of these boys.
Manteo was delighted, but Manchese was quiet.
Manteo was full of joy, but Manchese appeared to be
very much displeased.
Sir Walter Raleigh, who owned the ships that
brought them over, soon began to make ready to send
some people over to the new world to settle. While this
was being done, the two Indian boys lived in London.
They saw many things that caused them always to
remember their stay in that city.
At last everything was ready for the ships to return
to North Carolina. Manteo and Manchese came on
board with the others who were going to settle in the
new country. They were glad that they were on their
way back home.
In a few weeks they came in sight of the shores of
their native land. The visit of these boys to a strange
land was over.
THE LOSS OF A SILVER CUP 17!
THE LOSS OF A SILVER CUP
It was with pleasure that Manteo and Manchese once
more saw the land of their birth. They had been ab-
sent about eight months, and had seen much of the
world. They were overjoyed to see the smooth waters
of the sound and, in the distance, the forests where
they had so often roamed.
As soon as the ships reached Wocoken they cast an-
chor. There were more than a hundred men on board.
Ralph Lane was governor of the new colony and Sir
Richard Grenville was commander of the ships. Man-
teo was sent to Roanoke Island to inform the king of
their arrival. While waiting for him to return, Gren-
ville and Lane, with about a dozen others, crossed
over the sound and explored a large part of the neigh-
boring country. They were received in a kindly man-
ner by the Indians. Several villages were visited.
Everywhere the best of feeling existed between the
Indians and the English.
One night they stopped at Aquascogoc, a small vil-
lage with about twenty wigwams. The Indians were
glad to see the strangers, and welcomed them to their
homes. The night passed very pleasantly.
wo ko'ken a kwas'ko goc
18 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Next morning Grenville and his party left to go to
another place. They bade farewell to the savages, who
crowded around to see them off. The white men
thanked the Indians by signs for what they had done,
and gave them presents.
On the next day, after having traveled a long dis-
tance from the village, one of the men found that a
silver cup had been stolen from him. He told Sir
Kichard Grenville, and said that it had been stolen by
an Indian in the village where they had spent the night.
At once they returned to the village. Grenville sent
word to the chief that the cup had been stolen and the
thief must be caught. The chief sent word back that
he would try to find the thief and the cup. Soon he
came out to the white men with an Indian boy, who
confessed that he had taken the cup, and promised to
go back to the village and bring it.
The white men waited for some time, but the boy did
not return. Nobody knows why he did not. Some one
may have stolen the cup from him, or he may not have
wanted to give up what pleased him so much. The
white men became restless. Soon they lost their tem-
pers and began to shout and curse. The Indians be-
came frightened and began to run. Grenville and his
men fired their guns at the fleeing savages. Then they
THE LOSS OF A SILVER CUP 19
charged into the village and began to destroy every-
thing they could find. As they went through the vil-
lage they searched for the cup, but could not find it,
and this made them still more angry.
They set fire to the village and burned every wig-
wam to the ground. They searched the country around
to find the boy who had stolen the cup, but he was no-
where to be seen. They then set fire to the fields of
grain and destroyed everything in sight.
This was the beginning of bad feeling between the
Indians and the white men. It was wrong for the
Indian to steal the cup, but there was no reason for the
white men to act as they did. The Indians never for-
gave them for it. Manchese, who had never had any
fondness for the English, left them and began to plot
After having destroyed the Indian village and the
fields of grain, Grenville and his party returned to their
Soon Manteo came back bringing an invitation from
Wirgina, the king of Roanoke Island, to the white men,
bidding them come there to make their settlement.
This invitation was accepted, and the whole company
set sail for that place.
20 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
LANE'S SEARCH FOR GOLD
Governor Lane and the colonists received a cordial
welcome when they reached Roanoke Island. King
Wirgina sent kindly messages and gave them lands
upon which to build their homes. Other Indians helped
them unload the ships and erect their houses.
Soon they had a nice little village of huts. Then
they took from the ships all the household furniture
they had brought over. Lane and his men worked hard,
and soon had comfortable homes. Sir Richard Gren-
ville then sailed away to England, leaving the colony to
live or die in a strange land.
At first the Indians came to see them every day, and
were very friendly. Later they did not come so often.
They began to show some unfriendliness. They had
heard how Governor Lane and some of his men had
burned the Indian town because they could not find
the silver cup. But Manteo was a strong friend, and
Governor Lane spent much time in hunting for gold.
He was not satisfied with planting seeds and building
houses. He thought there must be gold mines in this
wonderful land. So he traveled all over the island.
LANE'S SEARCH FOB GOLD 21
went to the mainland, and searched the" country for
miles inland. Then he sailed up some of the rivers, but
nowhere could he find gold.
While Governor Lane was doing this, the Indians
were becoming more and more unfriendly. Manchese
was busy sowing among them the seeds of hatred and
jealousy. He got the ear of the king and began to plot
the destruction of the white men.
"Just see what the palefaces are doing," said he.
"They are taking our lands from us and we will have
to go elsewhere for our hunting grounds. Others will
come from across the big water and drive us away.
There are thousands in their big wigwams toward the
rising sun, ready to come and destroy us."
"That is true," replied the king, "for they destroyed
the homes and crops of our neighbors at Aquascogoc.
As for me I am ready to slay them now. It is time for
us to strike before other palefaces come."
They began to lay plans for the destruction of the
colony. They knew that Governor Lane was searching
for gold; so they thought that the white men could be
destroyed while hunting for the precious metal. Along
the banks of the Roanoke river, which the Indians
called Morotoc, lived a very fierce tribe of savages.
22 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
The plan of Wirgina and Manchese was to tell Lane
that there were gold mines up that river, and then send
word to these savages that the white men were coming
to make war on them. Thus they were sure that Lane
and his followers would perish.
One Indian, according to their plan, went to the
governor and offered to tell him where he could find a
gold mine. Lane was caught with the first bait, and
eagerly asked where it was.
"Far up the great river Morotoc," said the Indian,
"is a land rich in gold 'and precious stones. The great
river rises in a lake which is so near the ocean that the
waves sometimes beat over into it. The people of that
land are rich and have gold chains and bracelets."
Governor Lane was eager to find out the way and the
distance. The Indian answered his questions, and went
back to Wirgina, who sent him to do the other part of
his work, which was to tell the Indians on the river
that Lane was coming.
Soon the governor and his men set out in search of
this gold mine on the Roanoke river. They carried pro-
visions to last them a long time. Manteo was in the
company. For some days they went up the river.
They looked all along the banks to see if they could find
any signs of gold, or see any Indians wearing gold or-
LANE'S SEARCH FOR GOLD 23
naments; but they saw none, and continued their jour-
ney. When they had gone nearly a hundred miles they
saw some Indians. One evening, just before sunset,
they heard a peculiar whistling on the bank of the river.
Manteo said that it was the signal, of Indians preparing
to make an attack. Soon the whistling ceased and the
Indians began to sing a song.
Manteo said that was a signal of attack, and in a few
minutes a shower of arrows fell upon the boat. No
one was hurt. Lane and his men went ashore as soon
as possible. They charged up the hill and put the
Indians to flight. Then they encamped for the night,
thinking that they would follow the Indians next day.
The next morning Lane decided to go back to the
colony. Provisions had given out and there was no
chance to get any in that hostile country. So they
turned their boats down the river and traveled as fast
as they could. They became very hungry on the way,
as they had not a morsel of food. One day they ate a
boiled dog and sassafras leaves. After much suffering
they reached Roanoke Island. Wirgina and Manchese
were greatly disappointed by their return. This was
Lane's last search for gold. Soon afterward, in a fight
with the Indians, four of his men were killed. Wirgina
24 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
and many of his men were slain also. It is not known
whether Manchese was killed or not.
In a short while Lane went back to England with all
his men. Thus the first settlement was a failure.
THE LORD OF BOANOKE 25
THE LORD OF ROANOKE
Manteo went with Governor Lane to England. This
was his second trip across the ocean. He was as much
delighted this time as on his first trip. He had become
a strong friend of the white men. He had learned to
talk English a little, and could make himself under-
stood. The white men were kind to him, and he loved
them very much.
While in England this time Manteo became quite
well known to Sir Walter Raleigh. He talked to that
great man with the simplicity of a child, and told him
about his people and about the wild animals and the
flowers in his far-off home. In this way Sir Walter be-
came more and more interested in Manteo. A great
friendship was formed between the two, and they were
Manteo became very much interested in the titles of
honor in England. He asked many questions about
them. One day he asked Sir Walter Raleigh how one
mfght become a lord. Sir Walter looked at the Indian
for a moment with much concern, and said:
"My boy, do you wish to become great like these great
men whom vou see here?"
26 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
"Yes," said Manteo, "for I want to tell my people to-
ward the setting sun how to be great, and how to build
fine wigwams like yours. The Great Spirit has sent me
over here to learn from you how to be great and good."
Sir Walter was much pleased with the earnestness
of the young Indian, and promised to show him how to
be great and good.
"You must be obedient and watchful," said he, "and
then perhaps you will learn enough to become a lord."
From that time Manteo was more diligent than be-
fore. He was bright, and learned very rapidly. He
talked much with learned men, and soon became known
all over London for his brightness and his eagerness to
When the time came for the newly-appointed gover-
nor, John White, to set out from England with his
colony, Manteo had gained a great deal of English
learning and culture. He was able to talk intelligently
about many things that he had never heard of before
coming to England.
A few days before the ships were to sail for America,
Sir Walter called Manteo to him and asked if he wanted
to return to his own country.
"Yes/' said the Indian, "for my people will be ex-
pecting me when they see the big ships."
THE LORD OF ROANOKE 27
Raleigh then told him that he should be called the
Lord of Roanoke. Manteo was very glad of this, and
thanked Sir Walter many times. He was delighted at
his title, and called himself Lord Manteo to hear how
After a while the ships sailed for America, and the
young Lord of Roanoke bade a last farewell to Eng-
land. He never went back to the beautiful country
where he had seen and learned so much. But he al-
ways remembered the many things that had interested
Soon the ships landed at Roanoke Island and the
settlement began. The houses already there were re-
paired and new ones built. All worked faithfully, and
soon had comfortable homes.
Governor White had been told by Sir Walter Raleigh
to appoint Manteo Lord of Roanoke as soon as the set-
tlement was made. Manteo first joined the church
and was baptized. Then Governor White struck him
on the shoulder with the flat of his sword and told him
that he was now a knight of the queen and Lord of Roa-
noke. The Lord of Roanoke wore his honors well. He
was very proud of his rank, and became a really fine
gentleman. He was very useful to the settlers in keep-
ing the Indians friendly and acting as> interpreter.
28 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
When the colonists moved from Roanoke to Croatan,
Manteo vent with them. He was also there when the
Indians from Virginia made an attack upon the colony.
He fought bravely in defense of the settlers, and when
all seemed to be lost, he escaped with a few of them to
Hatteras, where his people lived.
This is all that is known of the Lord of Roanoke. No
one knows what he did after this, or how long he lived
after reaching Hatteras. He fades from history at this
point. We can believe, however, that he was always
true to the English settlers that escaped the slaughter.
STORY OF VIRGINIA DARE 29
STORY OF VIRGINIA DARE
In the spring of 1587 colonists came from England
to settle on Roanoke Island. On this trip there were
women and children with the company. The year
before none but men had come, and they soon became
homesick and returned to England.
John White was governor, and he had over a hun-
dred people with him. Manteo was with him, too. He
had gone to England with Governor Lane the year
before, and now came back with Governor White.
They repaired the houses that Lane had built, and
put up others. Then the women and children went
ashore. Soon the old houses began to look homelike,
and the children began to play and enjoy themselves
in their wild homes. But they were afraid of the
Indians, and every time one would come to the village,
the children would run and hide.
One day George Howe was out in the sound all alone
catching crabs. Some Indians that were angry with
the white people crept up and killed him. This murder
scared all the children in the colony. They never went
very far from their homes after that. They were afraid
the Indians would kill them.
30 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
On the eighteenth of August, soon after all the
houses were repaired and the people began to feel at
home, a little baby girl was born at the house of
Ananias Dare. Her mother, Mrs. Eleanor Dare, was
the daughter of Governor White.
Governor White was very proud of his little grand-
daughter. He named her Virginia, as all the new
country was then called Virginia after the Virgin
Queen Elizabeth. He did not know that Virginia
Dare, the first white child born in this new country,
would become one of the most famous names in North
When Virginia was nine days old, Governor White
had to go back to England to get provisions for the
colony. He did not wish to go, and tried to get some-
body to go in his place. He wished to stay at Roanoke
Island with his little granddaughter. But as no one
else was willing, Governor White felt that it was his
duty to go.
He said good-bye to Mr. and Mrs. Dare, took little
Virginia up in his arms, and kissed her several times.
Then he went down to the ship that was waiting for
him, and was soon out of sight.
That was the last time Governor White ever saw his
granddaughter or any of the colonists. He went to
STORY OF VIRGINIA DARE 31
England and found his people at war with Spain. On
account of the war, he could not get supplies. He had
to wait three years. When the war closed, he got the
supplies and came back to the settlement; ! but he
could not find the colony, nor any member of it.
No one knows exactly what became of little Virginia
and her mother and father, or of any of the colonists
that Governor White left. Many years after that time
the Indians said that Virginia grew up and became a
queen among the Indians. According to this Indian
story, a year or more passed by and, as the colonists
heard nothing from Governor White, they began to
feel uneasy. Provisions were scarce, and they were in
danger of starving. They did not know what to do.
They waited another year, living on crabs and fish,
but the governor did not return.
"What can be the matter?" asked Mrs. Dare; but
no one could answer. Every one thought that the
governor had been lost at sea. Still they hoped on,
but despair began to settle upon all.
At last they decided to cross over to the mainland,
which was called Croatan, and build other homes. The
Indians there were friendly, and had invited them to
come. So they cut the word Croatan on a tree and left.
32 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
There they lived for several years with the friendly
Indians. Little Virginia grew up to be a very beau-
tiful girl. The Indians loved her, and called her
the daughter of the Great Spirit. Thus it was that
several years passed. But one day a terrible thing
happened. The powerful Powhatan, an Indian king,
who lived on the Powhatan river, now called James
river, in Virginia, made war upon the Croatan Indians,
captured their town, and put all the people to death
except a few who escaped. All the white people were
murdered except four men, two boys, and a little girl.
That little girl was Virginia Dare.
Manteo, who was there, escaped, and with these
seven white persons went to Hatteras, where his
kindred dwelt. There Virginia grew to womanhood.
She was so beautiful and wise that the Indians
regarded her as some being that the Great Spirit had
sent to them to guide and teach them.
So they made her the queen of the tribe, and for
many years the " Fair Goddess," as they called her,
ruled wisely and well. The white men, who had
escaped with her, married Indian girls. Thus the two
races became united.
pow ha tan'
STORY OF -VIRGINIA DARE 33
No one knows whether the story of Virginia Dare is
true or not. It is a pretty one, and all of us would be
glad to know that she really lived among the Indians
and became their " Fair Goddess."
34: NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
A SAD GRANDFATHER
Governor White was very sad the day he left
Roanoke Island to go to England. He was still sadder
when he reached England and found that he could not
return to Roanoke Island in a long time. He grieved
much during the three years that he had to wait.
He thought of his daughter and little granddaughter
far over the sea, waiting for him to come back. How
his heart ached when he thought of them in danger in
a strange land! Gladly he would have risked his life
in their behalf. He would have started back imme-
diately if he could have gotten away.
As it was, no ship could leave England; for a great
Spanish fleet, called the Invincible Armada, was
coming to conquer the country. All the ships in the
kingdom were pressed into service, and none was
allowed to go away. Governor White had to join in
the defense of his country. Still he was thinking all
the time of little Virginia Dare and her mother in
far-off North Carolina.
At last the Spaniards came with their great army
and fleet to attack England. They struck hard, but
A SAD GRANDFATHER 35
the English struck harder. They were beaten and
nearly all of their ships were destroyed. The English
rejoiced over the great victory.
Then Governor White was relieved from service. He
set out at once for North Carolina. He was glad that
he was at last on his way back to see the little girl and
her mother. His heart rejoiced, and yet he was afraid
that something had happened to them in his absence.
How glad he would be to see them all alive and well!
Soon they came in sight of the shores of Roanoke
Island. Governor White was looking to see if he could
get a glimpse of some one on the shore. He saw a
smoke rising in the direction of the settlement. He
felt sure that it was coming from some of the houses
of the settlers. Soon he would come to the shore and
find them all there to receive him; and how happy
they would all be in the reunion!
Presently the ship came to the shore, but there was
nobody in sight. They landed, but not a human being
appeared. Governor White's heart began to fail him.
He walked up the shore and called, but only the echo
of his own voice replied. Then he went up the hill to
the houses. The buildings looked deserted. As he
came nearer, two deer came out from the bushes near
the houses and ran away.
36 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Then he went up to the first house. Nobody was
there. Weeds had grown up around it. The. footpath
was hidden by grass. He went on to another, and
then another, and found them all deserted. There
was no sign of any human being. Nobody had been
there for a long time. Everything was bare and
gloomy. His heart sank within him. Tears came to
his eyes, and he groaned aloud.
What had become of them? He tried to answer the
question. He looked around to see if there was any-
thing that would help him to find out their where-
abouts. There was no sign of any struggle. There
had been no battle with the Indians. There was no
evidence of hasty leaving except a box of old books
and pamphlets that he found broken open. The books
were scattered about, but that indicated no conflict.
Presently he found something that gave him joy in
those moments of sadness. On a tree was the word
Croatan cut in large letters. That, then, was the place
to which they had gone. His heart leaped for joy, for
he felt sure he would find the lost colonists.
Quickly he ran back to the ship and told the captain
what he had found. He urged an immediate departure
for the island of Croatan. But the captain was a man
who cared nothing for Governor White or his people.
A SAD GRANDFATHER 37
He refused to go to Croatan. He said that the ship was
without provisions, and that he had to go to the West
Indies to get a supply. Governor White begged and
threatened, but the man was deaf to all the feelings of
a father and grandfather.
In the midst of the dispute a violent storm came
up. The ship was blown out to sea, and for three days
was driven before the hurricane. W T hen the storm was
over, it was found that the ship was damaged. They
set out for England at once to repair the damage. After
a few weeks they reached England in safety.
Governor White tried to get another ship to come
over in search of the lost ones. He tried in vain. He
had no .money himself, and Sir Walter Raleigh, who
had been furnishing the money, was now bankrupt.
Eloquently he pleaded for help. With an aching heart
he told of the hundred settlers at Croatan waiting for
help from England. But he found no one to aid him.
Heartbroken he gave up the struggle. He went to his
home and lived in sadness until death relieved him of
This is one of the saddest stories connected with the
settlement of this country a story that appeals to all
hearts. The settlers were living in distress among the
Indians, waiting for relief that never came.
38 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
THE FIRST SETTLEMENT
After Governor White returned to England, it was
more than sixty years before any more white people
came to North Carolina to live. During that time sev-
eral attempts were made to find Virginia Dare and the
other colonists, but no one ever found them.
Virginia and several other colonies had been settled
during these sixty years. But North Carolina was a
wilderness. No white people were known to be living
there. Indians held possession of the land. They
hunted and fished without knowing that the English-
men were making settlements elsewhere.
Soon daring men from Virginia came over into North
Carolina to see what the country was like. They went
down the Chowan river. to Albemarle Sound and exam-
ined the country as they went. They found it to be rich
and well watered. They then went back to Virginia
and told the people there what they had seen. Many
of the Virginia settlers wished to move at once over
into North Carolina. They wished to get away from
the tyranny of Governor Berkeley and to seek richer
THE FIRST SETTLEMENT 39
Roger Green, a clergyman in Nansemond county, ap-
plied to the king for permission to move south with his
flock to the Chowan river. He secured a grant of ten
thousand acres of land on the Roanoke and Chowan
rivers, and resolved to move there. For several weeks
preparations were made to start south. Wagons and
horses were needed. Provisions had^to be collected.
Clothing had to be made up to last until they became
settled in their new home. A great many other things
had to be looked after. After a while they were ready
to start. Neighbors who were not going came to say
good-bye. The wagons were loaded and the caravan
started on its journey. Many miles through the forests
lay before them.
The company traveled very slowly, for there was no
road and one had to be made as they proceeded. After
weeks of hardships and hard work they came into the
neighborhood of the Chowan. They halted and looked
about far a suitable place to begin the settlement. Af-
ter some delay, they selected a spot, and began the
erection of houses to shelter them from the weather.
Soon after the settlers began to build th.eir houses,
several Indians came and lopked on. They did not
seem at all "displeased, and said nothing to alarm the
40 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
settlers. They watched the men use the saw and the
axe and the hammer.
These Indians belonged to the Yeopin tribe that
lived higher up the Chowan. They went home and told
what they had seen. Several days after, a considerable
band of these Indians came. The settlers were some-
what alarmed when they saw the Indians coming, but
the redskins soon showed that they were not after blood
or scalps. They halted some distance off and motioned
for the white men to come nearer. Then by signs it was
told the white men that they had no right to settle on
the land, unless they bought it from the Indians. Soon
a bargain was made. The Indians received in payment
some cheap jewelry, hats, red handkerchiefs and simi-
lar articles that pleased them very much.
By hard work the settlers soon had houses for them-
selves. Then they began to clear the land. They
cleared large tracts, and year after year raised large
crops of corn and tobacco.
This settlement was made on the Chowan river, some
miles north of Edenton, in 1653. It opened the way for
other settlers, and in ten years there was quite a large
number of people living in North Carolina.
In 1663 Charles II., King of England, gave to eight
of his lords all the country between Florida and the
THE FIKST SETTLEMENT 41
southern limit of Virginia and running westward to
the "South Seas." This region had been called Caro-
lina in honor of King Charles I., and kept this name
when the first colony was formed in 1663.
42 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
A CATTLE RANCH ON THE CAPE FEAR
In 1660 a colony of men came from New England
and made homes for themselves near the mouth of the
Cape Fear river. They wanted to raise cattle to sell to
people in London and other large cities, and thought
that the land in that part of the country would make
That was long before Wilmington was settled. It
was a few years before the colony on Albemarle Sound
became established, and seven years after Green and
his flock settled on the Chowan.
At that time the land in North Carolina did not be-
long to any one especially; or rather, it belonged to so
many different ones that nobody knew who really had
the best right to it. The king of England claimed it.
So did certain Englishmen to whom the king had given
it some years before. The Indians claimed it as their
own; and it does seem that their right was the best
one, for they were living on it.
These men from New England traded with the In-
dians, and bought a large tract of land on Old Town
creek. The price paid was not large; only a few beads,
finger rings and the like. They brought large numbers
A CATTLE RANCH *ON THE CAPE FEAE 43
of cattle from New England and Virginia to stock their
farms. These men were very industrious, and soon had
good sheds and stalls for the cattle. They attended
strictly to their business, and for a time the outlook
In a short while, however, they began to see that
the land was not so well suited for stock-raising as they
had thought. Grass was not so plentiful as they had
supposed. The cattle did not thrive well. Disease
broke out among them, and it looked as if all their
"money and time would be lost.
As their cattle business was a failure, they deter-
mined to make up for their loss in some way. So they
began to lay plans to kidnap some Indian children,
carry them off to the West Indies, and sell them as
slaves to the Spaniards. There was near the camp a
good-natured Indian family of several children. The
white men had learned to talk with these Indians in
their own language. They spent a good deal of the
time with them and talked about the interesting things
to be seen in other places.
One of the shrewdest of the white men one day went
to the Indian wigwam and asked if he might teach the
little boys and girls how to read. The Indians had no
schools, and did not know anything about reading.
44 NOKTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
But they were glad to learn, and were delighted with
the idea of "making paper talk" and learning to talk
out of a book. So this shrewd man began to teach
school in the wild Indian country. He told the Indians
about the large schools in Massachusetts and the good
"They have large wigwams with long rows of seats
for the boys and girls to sit on," said this schoolmaster.
"They can teach Indians how to read quickly there."
One of the Indian boys said that he would like to go
to school in Massachusetts. Soon others said that they
wanted to go, too. This was what the white man
wanted, and he persuaded the parents to let the chil-
dren go. So quite a large number of Indian boys and
girls sailed one day from the Cape Fear in a boat be-
longing to the settlers. They thought they were going
to Massachusetts to school, but these wicked white
men sent them to Cuba and sold them to the Spaniards.
Time passed, and the fathers and mothers of these
children began to think that it was time for the pupils
to come back and spend a vacation at home. But they
did not come; and the parents began to feel uneasy.
They went to the white men and asked when the little
Indians would come back.
"It has been twelve moons," said the chief, "since
A CATfLE RANCH ON THE CAPE FEAR 45
they left, and we want to know when they are coming
The white men said that school would be out in a few
weeks, and then the little boys and girls would return.
That satisfied the Indians for a time, but soon they sus-
pected that they were being deceived. A large body
of them went to the settlers and demanded that the
children be returned at once.
"We have waited," said the chief, "for our paleface
brothers to bring back our children; but we do not in-
tend to wait much longer."
"If the next moon," said he, "does not bring them, we
are going to tear down your houses and take your
That was terrible news to these settlers, for none of
them wanted to be scalped. So they concluded that
they would leave before the Indians had time to get
their knives sharpened.
They got everything ready, and one night sailed
away, never to return. The Indians, no doubt, grieved
a long time because their little boys and girls had been
stolen from them. But the poor children were slaves
in the Spanish colonies.
"We shall burn the paleface who has been selling our lands."
29, Book n.
North Carolina History Stories
THE FIRST GOVERNOR
William Drummoud, the first governor of North Caro-
lina, was a Scotchman. He came from Scotland to
Jamestown, Virginia, when very young. He was in-
dustrious and intelligent, and soon won the respect of
the people of the Jamestown colony.
In 1653, when people began to move from Virginia to
the Chowan river in North Carolina, Drummond was
one of the first to visit the new land. He went there
with others interested, and w T hen the king gave the
land to the Lords Proprietors, he reported to them that
the land was fertile and well watered.
A governor had to be appointed for this new colony
in North Carolina. The men in England who owned
the land in the colony sent word to Governor Berkeley
of Virginia to appoint one. He went to the settlement
on the Chowan, consulted with the people, and ap-
pointed William Drummond. This was agreeable to
the people of the colony.
8 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Governor Drummond went to North Carolina in 1663,
and served as governor four years. He was very
popular with the people, and governed them well. But
for some reason Governor Berkeley removed him from
office and put another man in his place.
Drummond then went back to Jamestown to live.
Governor Berkeley never liked Drummond after this,
for he thought that the North Carolina governor would
try to do him some harm. Drummond, however, lived
quietly in Jamestown, and had very little to do with
public matters. He was a friend of the people, and
thought that they ought to have more freedom than
Governor Berkeley gave them.
The Indians had made war upon the settlers in Vir-
ginia. They attacked the settlements on the James
river, and killed many people. Governor Berkeley did
nothing to stop the Indians from killing the people and
destroying the crops. This negligence of the governor
made the people band together for protection.
About three hundred men formed a company to fight
the Indians, and chose for their leader a young English-
man named Nathaniel Bacon, who had come to the
colony only three years before. Bacon and his men
asked Governor Berkeley for a commission to march
against the Indians, but the governor would not give it
THE FIRST GOVERNOE
The people were compelled to protect themselves, so
a number of them marched with Bacon against the
Indians and drove them back. This made Berkeley
very angry, and he said that these men should be pun-
With four hundred men Bacon marched to James-
town to demand his commission, which Berkeley
granted. Again Bacon marched against the Indians
and defeated them. While he was away from James-
town Berkeley raised a force of men to resist Bacon
and his followers. When Bacon returned from fighting
the Indians he marched to Jamestown, and Berkeley
was forced to flee to a ship in the river.
Soon after this Bacon died, and his followers became
scattered. Governor Berkeley returned, and showed
himself to be a better fighter against his own people
than he had been against the Indians. Many of
Bacon's men were killed, or taken prisoners and
One of the most active followers of Bacon was Wil-
liam Drummond. He was taken prisoner and brought
to Jamestown. Governor Berkeley showed a very bad
temper when Mr. Drummond was brought before him.
"Mr. Drummond," said the governor, "you are very
welcome. I am more glad to see you than any man in
10 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Virginia. Mr. Drummond, you shall be hanged in half
"Just as you please," replied Drummond. "I am your
prisoner, and do not expect anything else than death."
It took about two hours to erect a scaffold, to go
through with a form of trial, and to pass sentence of
death. Then Drummond was led out to the gibbet and
hanged. Thus ended in disgrace, as it seemed, the life
of the first governor of North Carolina, but to-day
Drummond's name is honored by all who love liberty
The people hated Berkeley so for his tyranny and
cruelty that he went to England. The king refused to
see him, and he died in disgrace.
THE TARDY GOVERNOR 11
THE TARDY GOVERNOR
At one time the people of North Carolina were as
hard to govern as headstrong schoolboys. They were
very jealous of their rights, and would not submit to
any ruler who tried to force them to do things against
They had settled in the wilderness because they were
in search of homes where they might be free to live
without oppressive laws; and they were not going to
let their freedom be taken away from them without a
struggle. So when the governor tried to make the peo-
ple obey an unjust law, they declared that they would
not. They took up arms against the governor and his
men. This was in 1676. Peter Carteret was then gov-
He tried to carry out the laws that were made in
England by the Proprietors; but the people would not
submit. When they disobeyed the laws, he punished
them for it. Thus the colony was in a state of trouble
At that time there were two men living in North
Carolina whose names were Thomas Eastchurch and
12 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Thomas Miller. These men 'had great influence with
the people. Eastchurch was Speaker of the General
Assembly, and Miller was very popular with the people.
Both of them sided with the people in their struggle
against the governor.
Once Miller went to the governor and told him that
the people would not submit to a certain law that he
was trying to enforce.
"I tell you, governor," said he, "these people are not
going to give up their rights."
Governor Carteret had him arrested for this lan-
guage and sent to Jamestown for trial. He was turned
loose, however. He then went to England to complain
to the Lords Proprietors about his treatment. They
listened to him and promised to make the matter right.
Meanwhile Eastchurch had been sent to England by
the people to tell the Proprietors that they would not
submit to the unjust laws. The two men met in Lon-
don and united in presenting their complaints. East-
church was a handsome man, with plenty of good sense.
The Proprietors heard him with pleasure, and were
much impressed with him. They thought that East-
church was the very man to be made governor of North
Carolina, and so they appointed him to that office.
THE TARDY GOVERNOR 13
Miller was appointed as secretary and collector of cus-
toms in Albemarle.
After being appointed, these two men set out for
North Carolina to begin their labors. They had re-
ceived more honors than they had ever hoped for. On
the way across the ocean they stopped at the island of
Nevis. There Eastchurch met a beautiful Creole lady,
with whom he fell deeply in love. He forgot all about
his duties in North Carolina, and lingered on the island
in the company of this lady.
After a while he sent Miller on to North Carolina
to act as governor until he should come. Miller
went to North Carolina and was welcomed by the peo-
ple. He told them that Governor Eastchurch was on
the way, and would arrive soon.
Miller ruled \vell for a time, but soon the people be-
came dissatisfied. There was a noted man in the colony
named John Culpepper. He encouraged the people to
'resist some of the demands of Miller. Trouble broke
out, and the colony was again in danger of war. Miller
was forced to give up his position and leave the colony.
During all this time Eastchurch had remained on the
island of Nevis. He had w r on the love of the beautiful
Creole lady and had married her. Then he remem-
U jteWtt CAROLINA HisfoaV
bered that he was governor of North Carolina, and
made haste to leave the island for his field of labor.
Accompanied by his wife, he set out for home, but
when he arrived there he found matters in bad shape.
Miller had been deposed from office and John Culpep-
per put in his place. No one received him as governor.
He found himself in a country with a title to the high-
est office, but another man filling the office.
Eastchurch now began to realize what he had lost
while he was stopping on the island of Nevis. He went
to Virginia to see if he could get help to uphold his
authority in North Carolina. No one there took any
special interest in his case, and after many disappoint-
ments and failures he died heartbroken. He had prom-
ised a high position to his wife, the beautiful Creole
lady, but she found herself a homeless exile with him.
Yet she remained true to him to the last, and encour-
aged him in every way in her power.
JOHN LAWSON AND THE ALLIGATORS 15
JOHN LAWSON AND THE ALLIGATORS
About the year 1700 John Lawson came to North
Carolina to live. His home had been in England. He
wanted to see the New World, and so came over in one
of the trading vessels. His boat landed at Charleston,
South Carolina, and he stopped there about four
months. It is probable that he would have decided to
live there, but when some one told him that North
Carolina was the most delightful country in the world,
he came to this colony to find a home.
Lawson was a very sensible man, and his coming was
worth much to the colony. He was a good surveyor,
and soon found plenty of work in his new home. The
settlers made him surveyor-general of the colony. In a
short while he became one of the best known men in the
W T hile Lawson was surveying he kept a record of
what he did each day. From this record he afterwards
wrote a book about what he had seen and heard in
North Carolina, and had it published under the name of
"History of North Carolina." It was a very interesting
book at the time. It told about the Indians, the ani-
36 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
mals and the birds that lived in the swamps and forests
where he had been surveying. The book is not printed
now, but may be found in some of the old libraries
owned by private individuals, and in the State library
Once Lawson had quite a strange experience. He
was surveying land on the Neuse river not far from
where Newbern now is. ^ear the bank of the river he
had built a small house in which he could stay at night
with his dog and a friendly Indian. In this house they
dwelt for some weeks. About one mile away was an
One night Lawson was sitting in his little house.
His dog was slumbering in the corner. His Indian
companion had gone to the village to visit his people.
Lawson was writing his journal and laying plans for
his next day's work. It was in March, just before spring
opens. Suddenly he heard a tremendous roaring di-
rectly under his house. He did not know what to think
of it. His dog became frightened and whined as if in
great distress. The roaring would come in spells, and
seemed to shake the earth under his feet.
Lawson was a brave man, but this noise under his
house made him feel very uncomfortable. He had
never heard anything like it before. Presently he be-
JOHN LAW80N AND THE ALLIGATORS 17
gan to think that it was some trick which the Indians
were playing to steal his goods. So he decided that he
would not go out of the house, and if the Indians
wanted to steal anything from him they would have to
break in. He stood inside and waited for the attack.
But the attack did not come, though the noise under
the house was kept up. It grew so loud that it shook
the house and made a horrible din. The dog was almost
dead with fear. Lawson himself started to rush from
the house and seek a place of safety; but just as he was
about to open the door some one knocked. It was the
friendly Indian who had returned from the village.
The Indian told Lawson what caused the noise. He
said it was an alligator that had made its bed under the
house deep down in the earth. There it had stayed all
winter, asleep, but as spring had come the alligator
was getting ready to come out of winter quarters.
Lawson moved his house and gave the 'gator all the
room he wanted. Afterwards he studied the habits of
these animals, and found that on the approach of winter
they went down into the mud and cut their way up
to the highland, where they remained until spring.
The house had been built over a nest of them, and they
were getting ready to come out of their winter homes.
Lawson lived about ten years in North Carolina. He
18 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
went over most of the Albemarle and Neuse river sec-
tions, but he never had another such experience with
alligators. Lawson was afterwards put to death by the
Indians in a verv cruel manner.
THE ALBEMARLE BOSS 19
THE ALBEMARLE BOSS
There was once a man m the Alberaarle colony who
had a way of persuading people to do things just as he
told them, and who made a great deal of trouble. This
man was John Porter. He lived in Edenton near the
beginning of the eighteenth century. He was a very
shrewd, but bad, man. His influence over the people of
his time was wonderful.
Most of the people who had settled in North Carolina
had moved there to escape unjust laws and to secure
the right to live without oppression. They were very
quick, therefore, to oppose any law that was oppressive;
and they were suspicious of those who were sent to rule
over them. John Porter was one of the men who en-
couraged the people to resist the governors that were
sent to North Carolina. He did this without waiting to
see whether the laws were right or wrong.
When Colonel Carey became governor in 1705, John
Porter began to stir up the people. He soon had them
very much dissatisfied. Governor Carey made every
one appointed to office take an oath that he would do
his duty while in office. This was a right and necessary
thing, but it displeased a large number of people. They
did not believe in taking oaths for anything.
John Porte*r did not care whether anybody took an
oath or not, but he complained against this law of the
governor's. In fact, he complained louder than any-
body else, and tried to make the people think that it
was a dreadful thing to take an oath.
His loud complaints gave him a free ride to England;
for the people chose him as a delegate to go there and
ask that Governor Carey be removed from office. Por-
ter was a good talker, and he soon persuaded the Pro-
prietors to depose Carey and put another man in his
place. They gave him a commission to go back to
North Carolina and call a meeting of the people to elect
Soon after his return, the citizens met and asked
Governor Carey to give up the office. Then the dele-
gates asked John Porter what they must do next. Some
thought that he would have himself elected governor,
but he did not. He told them to elect William Glover,
and they did so. No doubt John Porter thought that
Glover would do as he was told, but he was mistaken.
No sooner was Glover made governor than he began to
do the same things that Carey had done. This made
THE ALBEMABLE BOSS 21
Porter very indignant. He swore a big oath, which
was the thing he was fighting, and said that he would
have William Glover put out of the office. So he called
the people together in another meeting and made a big
speech to them.
"We. made a mistake," said Boss Porter, "in electing
this man Glover to rule over us. He is a rascal, and
ought to be driven from the colony. We do not w r ant
such a governor."
"Down with him!" shouted the assembly, and Glover
was voted out. Now was Porter's chance to make him
self governor, but he turned his back upon the prize
and walked out. He sent in word that he would return
in a little while. He went straight to. the house of Colo-
nel Carey and knocked at the door. Carey was sur-
prised to see his old enemy coming to visit him. The
two shook hands and went into the house.
"Colonel Carey," said Porter, "I've come to get you to
take the office of governor again."
"You have?" said Carey, laughing. "That is strange.
You must have forgotten what you did a short while
"No, indeed!" replied the other, "but we want you on
our side. You must come over and be one of us."
So these men entered into a bargain, and Porter went
22 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
back to have Carey re-elected to the office of governor.
This was done, and the assembly adjourned. Governor
Glover and the other men who were on his side fled to
Virginia. John Porter and Carey ruled just as they
wished for several years.
After a while the Proprietors in England appointed
Edward Hyde as governor. He came over in 1710.
Governor Carey and John Porter seemed to be glad to
see the new governor, and gave up the place without a
word. It seemed that the troubles of the colony were
over, but they were not; for John Porter loved to make
trouble. Soon he aroused the people against Governor
Hyde. He called them together and declared that Hyde
was not governor. He then induced the people to elect
Carey for the third time. Governor Hyde, however,
did not run, as Glover had done. He had come there to
be governor, and he was not going to be deposed.
Carey and his followers said they were going to hang
Governor Hyde if they could catch him. But Hyde was
no coward. He collected as many men as he could and
waited for Carey to come and hang him. Carey came,
but Hyde and his men shot so rapidly and accurately
that Carey and his followers decided to wait a few days
before catching him.
In a day or two Governor Hyde thought that , he
THE ALBBMAKLB BOSS 23
would visit Carey and see if he had the rope ready for
him. Carey did not wait to receive him, but fled to the
swamps and carried the rope with him.
Shortly afterwards Carey was captured and sent to
England for trial. John Porter w r ent to the Indians
and tried to rule them as he had the colonists; but he
soon found that he could not do so. He did succeed,
however, in bringing on a great Indian war.
24: NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
AN ADVENTURE ON THE NEUSE
In the summer of 1711 John Lawson and several
other men went up the Neuse river to explore the coun-
try. Baron de Graffenreid, a Swiss nobleman, was in
the company. He had brought over from England a
large number of settlers, who had made homes for
themselves near the mouth of the river. He wished to
see whether there were good places for settlements up
the river. Lawson, who was the surveyor-general of
the colony, was also interested in the upland country.
He was interested, also, in the birds and animals that
lived in the swamps.
The men carried provisions enough to last for several
weeks. All along the river they noticed the large trees
and beautiful flowers. The birds also were plentiful
and pretty. Squirrels and foxes were often seen, and
sometimes the howl of wolves was heard. John Law-
son made notes of all these things. The white men
thought it was a very beautiful country. Several times
they stopped, and Lawson surveyed the lands on both
sides of the river.
For several days they had gone on without seeing an
AN ADVENTURE ON THE NEU8E 25
Indian. That seemed strange, for the red men had al-
ways before come out to meet the white men. They
had been very friendly to the white people. But now
not one was to be seen. They seemed to have left the
country. One day, however, while the white men were
eating their midday meal, they saw a party of Indians
watching them from a hill some distance away. The
white men did not fear them, but they could not under-
stand why they were watched by the Indians. They did
not know that the savages had formed a plot to kill all
the white people, and were at this very time on the war-
After finishing their dinner, Lawson and his men
went farther into the woods. They wanted to see the
timber lands higher up the river. For some time they
marched on without noticing that the Indians were fol-
lowing them. Presently it was seen that a considerable
body of red men was creeping along behind, trying to
keep themselves hid behind. trees and undergrowth.
"Look at those red devils," said Graffenreid. "Just
as sure as the sun shines, they mean mischief. Don't
you see they have on their war paint and plumes?"
Lawson was quite sure that they were after scalps.
"Yes, sir," answered he, "I am quite sure that we are
going to have trouble, and if we get out alive it will be
26 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
a kindness of Providence. I think they intend to at-
"Let us then prepare to receive them," said the baron.
"I, for one, do not want to be butchered without doing
some damage in return."
As it was nearly night, the party halted and made a
fire to warm their food. There were only six or eight of
them, and it seemed useless to resist if the redskins
should make an attack. They felt quite sure that the
attack would come, but they were in doubt as to how
they should act. Graffenreid said that he was going to
sell his life as dearly as he could. Lawson said that he
was no fighter, but would defend himself to the last.
Soon the attack came. About sixty of the savages
rushed upon them with shouts and yells. The white
men fought the best they could, but the Indians ran
ever them, beat them to the ground, and bound their
hands and arms. Then they were forced to travel all
night with these Indians to a town some miles inland.
Footsore and weary they reached the town early next
day, and were delivered to the chief in charge.
That afternoon a council of all the chiefs in the tribe
was called to decide what should be done with the pris-
oners. Lawson, Graffenreid and the others were car-
ried into the assembly and made to stand in the center
AN ADVENTURE ON THE NEUSE 27
with all the chiefs seated around them. The king of
the tribe from a high seat questioned them.
"Why did our paleface brothers come up the river?-'
asked he. "Have they come to spy our land and take it
"No, indeed," said the baron. "We are looking for a
short way to Virginia. If we wanted your land we
would offer you money for it."
"Did not Indians see the paleface brother with the
chain, measuring our land on the river? How, then,
can he say that he wants not the land?"
Lawson told them that he measured the land so that
he could draw a map of the country. Then he showed
them one of the maps that he had drawn. They were
much pleased with the map, and seemed to be satisfied
with the explanation. Finally they decided that the
prisoners should be released and sent home the next
day. So Lawson and his friends slept soundly that
night, for they felt that they would be allowed to go
back home. But a far different fate awaited them.
On the next day, instead of being turned loose, they
were carried before another council and asked more
questions. At this council was a Core Indian whom
Lawson had known some time before, and with whom
he had had some trouble. This Indian was a bitter
28 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
enemy of the white people, and spoke against turning
"Palefaces have taken away our lands," he said, "and
now they are after yours. This man with the chain
measures and sells to white men. He is the man that
has turned our hunting grounds into cornfields. He is
the man who will measure your land and plant corn in
the places where the deer and the squirrel are now
found. Would you rather have the white man's corn
growing upon your land or the deer and the quail there?
O, Tuscaroras, look well to your hunting grounds!"
This speech made a deep impression on the savages.
Lawson and his companions were beaten with clubs
and condemned to death. The council broke up to carry
out the sentence. They were roughly dragged to the
place of execution.
"Would you put a king to death?" asked the baron.
"Such a thing is never done. It would grieve the Great
"Who is king?" questioned the Indians, almost all
"I am king of fifteen hundred palefaces, who are now
looking for me," answered the baron. "They would
" AN ADVENTURE ON THE NEUSE
never forgive their dark-skin brothers if their king were
put to death."
The chiefs talked together very rapidly and excitedly.
There appeared to be two parties among them one for
execution and the other for turning the prisoners loose.
Finally a compromise was agreed upon, and the great
chief came to the white men and said with much earn-
"Palefaces, you are in our hands. We can do with
you what seems best to us. Nothing can save you from
our power. We shall burn the paleface who has been
selling our land, but the king we shall hold as a pris-
oner to keep his people from making war on us. Now
you have heard our decision."
The baron was led away to another part of the vil-
lage, and Lawson was stripped of his clothing. They
then made hundreds of sharpened lightwood splinters,
keen at both ends. They stuck these splinters into the
flesh, of poor Lawson and danced around him with de-
light. Then these human devils bound Lawson to a
stake. They danced the war dance around him and
sang their dreadful songs. Presently they set fire to
the splinters and burned him to death.
The baron could hear what was going on, and knew
that the Indians were tormenting their prisoner.
30 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Soon the savages came to him and told him that they
had killed Lawson. Graffenreid was afraid they had
come for him to share the same fate. But the chief
said that he would be held as a prisoner, and that his
life would be spared. Graffenreid's negro man was in
the same room, and the Indians looked at him as if to
say, "It is your turn now."
"King of the palefaces," said the chief, "you need not
be afraid, for we will not kill you. But Indian braves
want more song and more dance to-night. Your black
man must be burned."
This was dreadful news to the baron, for he was very
fond of the faithful negro, who had been with him
so long and had served him so well. He tried to change
the redskins from their purpose.
"This poor fellow," the baron said, "has never done
any harm to the Indians. He came because I did.
Spare him and you shall be rewarded."
"He give Indians fun," grunted the chief.
As night came on more Indians came into the village.
They made large fires here and there. Sometimes they
would yell like madmen, and the blood of the white
man ran cold and the poor negro was almost dead with
fear. Finally they came and seized the negro and
carried him off. He struggled with his enemies, but
AN ADVENTURE ON THE NEU8E 31
they dragged him along to the place of execution.
There they bound him to the stake. Then they piled up
pieces of dry pine wood around him and set them on
fire. Then they danced around the sufferer until death
relieved him of his agony.
Such things are dreadful to relate, but they hap-
pened long ago, before the white people had come in
numbers large enough to prevent it. It was against
such savages that the settlers had to contend, to make
this country the home of the white men.
The savages held the baron for a long time as their
prisoner. They let him go when he promised them that
he would not make war upon them. He kept the
promise, and would not join in the war which the white
people made upon the Indians the next year.
32 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
AN INDIAN MASSACRE
When John Porter was driven away from the settle-
ment on the Chowan river, he went to the country of
the Indians. They received him kindly, for they had
always been on friendly terms with the white people.
But it was not very long before he persuaded them to
begin a war against the settlers. He told them that the
colonists had been getting ready for some time to drive
the Indians away from their lands, and were only wait-
ing to receive guns and ammunition from England.
There was a noted chief among the Tuscaroras,
named Handcock. He had never been a friend to the
settlers. He listened to Porter's story with delight.
He questioned him, and found out that the settlers
were fighting each other, or rather that there were two
factions that were opposed to each other. Porter gave
him all the information he wanted, and often he told
things that were untrue. Handcock was pleased with
the idea of attacking the settlers, and called the chiefs
together to decide upon the plan.
When all the chiefs had come together under a large
oak tree, he arose and said to them in his own language:
"Tuscarora chiefs, most fleet of foot and strong in
AN INDIAN MASSACRE 33
arms, you are the masters of chis land. You have re-
ceived it as a gift from the Great Spirit. You and your
fathers have hunted the deer by the banks of the rivers
and chased the raccoon and the fox in these woods. It
is yours to live upon. It is yours to leave to your chil-
dren. Will you give it up to the palefaces who have
come among us? I know you will not, for it is your
right to stay here."
Handcock then told them the story which Porter had
told him : how the settlers were only waiting to get help
from England to drive them from their homes. For
a while all were silent. Then Tom Blunt, another chief,
arose and said that he would like to hear from the pale-
face brother. Porter replied that there was a division
among the white people; some wanted to begin war
upon the Indians at once, while others opposed it. He
himself had opposed it, and for that reason he had to
leave the settlement. That was a big falsehood, but
the Indians did not know that it was.
The matter of beginning war upon the settlers was
next discussed. Handcock and a majority of the chiefs
were in favor of war, but Tom Blunt and a few others
opposed it. When the vote was taken it was seen that
all except a few chiefs favored immediate war. Tom
Blunt and those who sided with him withdrew from
O* WORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
the convention and carried the matter to their follow-
ers. They remained neutral in the war, and for their
fidelity were afterwards rewarded.
Handcock set about making preparation for war.
The matter was kept a profound secret. Even Blunt
and his followers kept the matter to themselves.
When the Indians were ready to strike the fatal
blow, twelve hundred Tuscarora warriors assembled in
the forest to begin their work of death. There they
divided into three commands. One division was to
strike the settlements on the Pamlico, another the set-
tlements on the Roanoke, and a third those on the
Silently they began their march. They approached
the appointed places in the afternoon of the day before
they were to make the attack. The settlers were uncon-
scious of any danger. They were going about their
regular business without a thought of trouble.
Out in the forest the Tuscarora army was waiting for
sunrise before making an attack. Many of them threw
aside their various weapons of war and came into the
settlements, mixing with the people whom they ex-
pected to murder next day. They appeared to be
friendly, and the settlers treated them with kindness,
little thinking that the next day would be their last.
AN INDIAN MASSACRE 35
When night came the Indians in the villages disap-
peared to join their comrades in the woods.
At sunrise a dreadful warwhoop was heard, and the
settlers were astonished to see their homes surrounded
by a band of fierce savages. It was in vain that the
white men seized their arms. The settlements were
scattered, and the settlers were compelled to fight sin-
gle-handed against large bodies of Indians. So it was
not a battle, but a massacre. Those of the whites who
escaped the first attack fled to the forests. Women and
children ran for life, but often it was death that they
found. Many were overtaken and cut down.
The torch was applied, and it consumed what the
tomahawk left. Houses that had cost years of toil were
burned. Fields of grain were destroyed. Cattle were
killed. Nothing was left to meet the wants of those
This dreadful massacre had happened at three dif-
ferent settlements at the same time. Those who es-
caped the slaughter came near starving in the woods
before help could reach them. But assistance came
after a while, and with it a cry for vengeance upon the
redskins. With such an act as an example, it was seen
that there could be no compromise with the Tuscaroras.
They must be destroyed or driven out of North Carolina.
Such was the determination of every white man.
36 NOBTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
CAPTURE OF FORT BARNWELL
After the Tuscaroras had killed so many white peo-
ple, they went back into the forests to see what would
be done. They believed that the settlers would make
war upon them. To prepare for it, they built a strong
fort about twenty miles from Newbern, and placed in
it all their weapons and war supplies.
As the settlers felt that they were unable to whip
the Indians, they sent messengers to Virginia and
South Carolina for help. Both colonies promised to
send troops. South Carolina was the first to send them.
Colonel John Barnwell, with an army of friendly
Indians and a few whites, came rapidly to the assist-
ance of the settlers. When he got to Newbern he found
out that the Tuscaroras were not far from there. He
was ready to fight them, and lost no time in going in
search of them. As he came into the neighborhood of
the fort, he found that the Indians were posted just
ahead, in the woods, in considerable numbers. Barn-
well was glad to hear of this, for he preferred to fight
them in the field rather than to attack them in their
fort. So he ordered his men to halt and prepare for
CAPTURE OF FOKT BAKNWELL 37
He then sent some of the friendly Indians to find out
exactly the position of the Tuscaroras. Soon they came
back and said that it would be hard to drive the enemy
from their position, but it could be done.
"Prepare for action!" said Colonel Barn well. "For-
ward! March! Stop not until the fort has been taken!"
With a rush the South Carolina Indians and whites as-
saulted the position of the Tuscaroras, and carried
everything before them. The Tuscaroras fought
bravely, but they could not stand the rush that was
made upon their line. In a very short time three hun-
dred of them were killed. The others fled to the fort
and shut themselves up in its walls.
In this fort they had gathered all their wealth from
the fields and from the forests. The old men and women
as well as the boys and the girls were there. In fact,
this was the last stand, as they thought, of the Tusca-
Barnwell approached the fort with much caution.
He drew his lines around it with a firm grip. Then
leading a charge he went up to the very walls, but he
was wounded and had to be taken from the field. His
men fell back.
The Indians in the fort were joyous. They gave a war-
whoop, leaped upon the wall, and were about to make a
38 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
charge upon Barnwell's men, when Colonel Mitchell
wheeled his cannon into line and began to fire grape-
shot at them. They leaped back into the fort to protect
themselves. Mitchell moved his gun toward the fort,
firing as he went. Eis shots struck the walls, which
began to give way; but just as his gun was about to
make an opening an order was received from Colonel
Barnwell to cease firing, and to retreat to his former
"What is the matter with the colonel?" asked Mitch-
ell. "Can't he see that the fort is ours, and that it will
take only half a dozen more shots to destroy the walls?"
Much to his sorrow he had to obey this order and
withdraw his company. That left the Indians in the
fort free from attack again. A big Indian at once
mounted the wall and waved as if he wished to say
something to some one in Barnwell's army. A friendly
Indian was directed to approach and hear what he
"Hear, O white men!" he said; "you have killed many
of our braves. Why do you wish to kill our women and
children? If you will let us go from this place with
our wives and children, we will leave the country and
brethren on the shores of the great northern
CAPTURE OF FORT BARNWELL 39
waters. If you will not, then we go anyhow, but much
blood of the white men will be shed."
This speech displeased Colonel Mitchell and the
North Carolina troops in the army; but Colonel Barn-
well accepted the terms offered, and allowed the In-
dians to march out of the fort with their arms and
equipments. Then his men took charge of the deserted
Soon after this the South Carolina Indians committed
some outrage against the Tuscaroras, who again flew
to arms, and declared that they would not leave their
homes. They said that they would die rather than give
up their hunting grounds to the palefaces.
4:0 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
CAPTURE OF FORT NAHUCKE.
Colonel Barnwell had to return to South Carolina to
recover from the wound he had received in the fight at
Fort Barnwell. Most of the Indians that were in his
party returned to South Carolina with him. Only a few
remained; and they had all they could do to restrain
the cruel Tuscaroras, who had broken their promise to
leave the country and go north.
Governor Hyde died about this time, and Colonel
Thomas Pollock was elected to fill the place of gover-
nor. He sent to Virginia and South Carolina for help,
as Governor Hyde had done the year before. South
Carolina was again the one to answer first. Governor
Craven, of that State, sent G lonel James Moore with a
large force of friendly Indians and a few whites to help
the people of North Carolina against the Tuscaroras.
This force came into North Carolina in the latter part
of November, 1712. They had to remain in camp all the
winter on account of the bad weather.
Late in February they set out for the Indian country,
and reached there about the first of March. This was
in the present county of Greene.
CAPTURE OF FORT NAHUCKE 41
The Indians had built a strong fort on a little hill,
and had gathered there all the wealth of the Indian
nation. They called this fort Nahucke. In it all the old
men and women were gathered. The little Indian boys
and girls were also there. This was their strongest
fort, and this was the place where they expected to
make their most stubborn fight.
Moore came in sight of the fort early in March. The
Tuscaroras knew that he was coming, and had sent out
bodies of Indians to watch his movements. These In-
dians had retreated ahead of him, and at last had gone
into the fort. Colonel Moore halted and took a good
look at the Indian stronghold. It seemed a stronghold
indeed, but he resolved to take it. He ordered his men
to form in four divisions, so that the fort might be at-
tacked on four sides at once.
These divisions went to the places assigned them,
and began to approach the fort slowly. The Indians
saw what the whites were doing, and laughed at them.
They said to themselves: "Do the palefaces expect to
find us asleep on any side? We can see them, no mat-
ter how they come."
Suddenly Moore's men ran towards the walls. But
the Tuscaroras were watching, and let fly their arrows,
which wounded many of the attacking party, and the
42 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
others retreated. Soon they made another charge, but
the Indians in the fort again repulsed them.
Colonel Moore now concluded to rest his men. They
did not fight again for several days. During that time
the Indians in the fort climbed up on the walls and
waved their plumes at those outside, and asked them
if they did not want to come in. But Moore's men said
nothing in reply. After a while all the men became
anxious to attack the fort. They had rested, and were
now ready to begin. This was what Colonel Moore
wanted. He thought that if his men became eager for
the battle they would fight more bravely.
At last he told his men they might take the fort. He
formed them into one line, and led them against the
stronghold. The Indians saw them coming, and thought
they could easily drive them back. As the whites and
Indians came nearer, the Tuscaroras leaped over the
walls and met their enemies in a hand-to-hand fight.
At first the South Carolina Indians were beaten back
by this unexpected charge. But they soon recovered
themselves and stood firm.
The Tuscaroras then retreated to the fort, but soon
made another wild rush upon the South Carolinians.
They were beaten back again. They became desperate,
and with a loud yell ran upon their enemies and fought
CAPTURE OF FORT NAHUCKE 43
at close range. Many were killed on both sides. The
Tuscaroras broke through the ranks of the enemy and
fled. They did not look back to see if they were being
pursued, but ran to another fort they had built about
twenty miles away.
Fort Nahucke was taken. Moore, went in and found
about eight hundred Indians inside, mostly old men,
women and children. All of these were given to the
South Carolina Indians to reward them for the aid they
had given the colony. They at once took the captives
to Charleston and sold them into slavery.
Soon after the fall of Fort Nahucke, Colonel Moore
led his army against the other Indian fort to which the
Tuscaroras had fled. But the Indians did not await his
arrival. They left this fort and fled up the Roanoke
river, through Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania to
New York, where they joined the Iroquois, and helped
to make the six nations in that State.
Thus all the Tuscaroras left North Carolina except
Tom Blunt and the others who had remained friendly
to the whites.
44 JJOBTH CAROLINA HISTOSY STORIES
In the Indian war that followed the massacre of the
white people in 1711, Tom Blunt remained friendly to
the colonists. He was a Tuscarora chief, but opposed
Chief Handcock in beginning the war upon the settlers.
As soon as the war began he retired to his own vil-
lage and called his followers around him. He made
them a speech, in which he advised them to take no
part in the war.
"My braves," said he, "you will be asked by the other
chiefs to go with them against the palefaces. You
should tell them that the white brothers have never
done you any harm, and that you do not want to kill
them. I tell you that a great calamity will come to you
if you make war upon the palefaces. I beg you not to
That speech kept a part of the. tribe from joining in
the war. Blunt and his followers staid in their tents
and kept their own counsel. They would not help the
Indians, but they also refused to aid the settlers. After
the war had been going on for some time, Colonel Pol-
lock tried to get Blunt to join the white people against
the Tuscaroras. He used all the persuasion he could
KING BLUNT 45
and made several promises, but the Indian chief would
not consent to lift his hand against his own people.
After the capture of Fort Barnwell, when the Indian
cause seemed to be lost, Colonel Pollock went to the
Indian village himself to visit Tom Blunt. There they
talked over the matter for a long time.
"The Tuscaroras," said Colonel Pollock, "are doomed
to destruction. Our people have made up their minds
to drive them from the land, because they killed our
friends in cold blood. I want to save you from the same
fate. Tom Blunt has always been a friend to the pale-
faces. He does not want to be an enemy to the white
"Join us against the other Indians," urged Colonel
Pollock, "and you and your town shall be saved, and
you shall be made king of all the tribes that remain in
"That is a big offer," said the chief; "can my brother
do as he says?"
"Yes," said the colonel, "and I'll see that you have a
large hunting ground on the left bank of the Roanoke."
Tom Blunt promised that he would join the whites
against the Indians. But he asked that he be allowed
to make war upon the Cores and Pungos instead of the
Tuscaroras. "For," said he, "I cannot fight my own
46 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
people, but I will destroy the Cores and the Pungos, for
they are the enemies of my race."
So it was agreed that Blunt and his followers should
march against those tribes, while the whites should
attack the Tuscaroras.
Blunt soon had everything in order, and set out with
a considerable body of Indians to attack the hostile
tribes in Beaufort and Hyde counties. He was rapid in
his march, and came up with them near the shores of
Lake Mattamuskeet. The Pungos were not expecting
an attack. They were having a great frolic over a mas-
sacre they had just made. Tom Blunt and his Tusca-
roras charged upon them, killed a few, and put the rest
to flight. Then he burned their village and hunted the
braves in the swamps until he had killed or captured a
great many. The others begged for peace.
Blunt then crossed the Pamlico river and came into
the country of the Cores. This tribe lived in what are
now Pamlico and Carteret counties. They were not
strong in numbers, but had joined with the Tuscaroras
in making war upon the settlers. For that reason Tom
Blunt was sent against them. Blunt and his men
fought the Cores wherever they could be found. Soon
their country was desolate and they were suing for
KING BLUNT 47
peace. Then Blunt went back home. He had carried
out his part of the contract.
It was about this time that Fort Nahucke was cap-
tured. The war was nearly over, and Blunt was ex-
pecting his reward. Colonel Pollock sent some men to
measure off a large tract of land on the Roanoke for the
friendly Indians. This was given to Tom Blunt and his
followers. The other Indians that still remained were
also allowed to go there and make homes for them-
Governor Pollock and the council gave to Tom Blunt
the title of king; and he was called King Blunt by both
the Indians and the white people. For many years
King Blunt ruled in the Indian country. He was al-
ways a steadfast friend of the settlers. Through him
peace w r as kept between the white people and the In-
dians in North Carolina. After his death the Indians
became dissatisfied with their homes on the Roanoke.
So they sold them to the settlers, and went to join their
brethren around the Great Lakes. Thus the last of the
Tuscaroras left North Carolina.
"Maynard was the better swordsman and soon ran Blackbeard
through and through." Page 13, Book HI.
North Carolina History Stories
THE CAROLINA PIRATE
Men who rob people on the sea are called pirates.
Those who do the same thing on land are called rob-
About two hundred years ago pirates lived on the
coast of North Carolina. This State was then a colony
of England. Many of these pirates had large ships,
equipped with cannon and other weapons for fighting.
Sometimes the pirates would seize a passing ship, kill
all the people on board, and take all the valuable things
they had. Then they would throw all the dead bodies
into the sea and send the ship adrift or sink it. There
was no safety on the sea for travelers. They never
knew when these bad jnen would attack them.
One of the boldest and most cruel of these pirates
was Edward Teach. He wore a long black beard, Avhich
he twisted into locks and wound around his ears. This
made him look frightful. He was called Blackbeard
by both his friends and his enemies.
8 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
When Blackbeard was going into battle he would
fasten lighted tapers to his hat and ears in order to
frighten his enemies. His followers feared him, and
did his bidding without hesitation. He had a very high
temper, and no one dared to oppose him.
For many years Teach had been a pirate in the West
Indies. He gained a considerable fortune by his rob-
beries, and then gave up his wicked ways. He came to
North Carolina and bought a farm near Bath, in Beau-
fort county. There he settled down to enjoy his money.
Why he came nobody ever knew. It was not long after-
wards that he married his thirteenth wife. It is not
known what he had done with the other twelve. He
became a farmer, and seemed to have given up his old
One d~y Blackbeard was at Bath and bought a ship.
He manned it with some of his old followers, who had
been living near the town. He said that he was going
to the West Indies to trade, and would return in a few
months. When he came back, he towed into the har-
|t)or of Bath a large French vessel, loaded with sugar
and cocoa. He said that he had found the vessel aban-
doned at sea. No one believed this story. Every one
thought that he had captured the ship and taken it as
his own, after killing all the crew.
THE CAROLINA PIRATE 9
Teach began to sell the cargo. He also gave away
much of it. He sent several barrels of sugar to Gover-
nor Eden and some cocoa to Judge Knight. These men
were afterwards accused of taking bribes, or hush
money, from the pirate; for it soon became evident that
he had again become a pirate.
Soon after this he put to sea with his band of pirates,
and for many years was a terror to merchants and sea-
men along the coast of the southern colonies. His fleet
was made up of six fast sailing vessels, each one armed
with cannon and manned by bloodthirsty seamen.
At one time Blackbeard captured a vessel off the
coast of South Carolina. Samuel Wragg, a member of
the legislature of South Carolina, was on board He
was robbed of all the money he had, and, as he was a
rich man, they did not kill him, but held him for ran-
som. Many of the pirates were sick at the time, and
Blackbeard wanted medicine for them. So he sent four
of his men to Charleston to demand the medic/. r 3. They
told Governor Johnson that Wragg was in i '.eir hands,
and that his head would be sent to the governor the
next morning by breakfast time if he did not send the
medicine. Governor Johnson did not wane Wragg's
head for breakfast, so he sent the medicine s.nd saved
the prisoner's life.
10 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Blackboard did many other bold and daring things.
His fleet blockaded all of the southern ports, and kept
the people in a state of alarm. His headquarters were
on the Island of Providence, in the Bahamas. From
that place the pirates scoured the sea in every direction,
and brought much booty back with them.
This went on for a number of years. The people were
getting very tired of having their ships taken and their
sailors killed. They could stand these things no longer,
so they sent to England for help.
At last a strong fleet was sent out against these sea
robbers. It was commanded by Captain Woods Rogers.
He was a good sailor, and knew how to fight pirates.
He found out their hiding place and sailed there at
once. As soon as he came to the island, he surrounded
it with his fleet. The pirates saw that they were caught.
Captain Rogers gave them the choice of surrendering,
or of being shot to pieces. They decided to surrender.
Blackboard was not there. He was somewhere on
the sea, carrying on robbery and murder. Soon he and
the others that escaped Captain Rogers came to North
Carolina and established headquarters in Pamlico
Sound, near Bath. His flagship was called Queen Anne's
Revenge. It carried forty cannon and had a crew of one
THE CAROLINA PIRATE 11
hundred men. He had five other ships that hovered
near the mouth of the Cape Fear river.
Blackbeard himself staid in and around Pamlico
Sound. All trade between North Carolina and other
countries was cut off; for the pirates would capture all
vessels either coming in or going out. It was a bad
state of affairs. People were afraid to send off their
goods, or even to travel. They were almost wholly shut
out from the world.
After a while they made up their minds to get rid of
this pirate who was troubling them so much. So they
sent a messenger to Captain Ellis Brand, who com-
manded the English fleet at Hampton Roads, to ask aid.
Captain Brand was glad to find out where Blackbeard
was. He sent Lieutenant Maynard with a strong force
to capture the pirates or destroy them.
Blackbeard soon learned that Maynard was coming.
He did not try to get away. He thought himself able
to meet any force that might come. He remained near
Ocracoke and waited for Maynard.
Maynard left the James river, in Virginia, as soon as
he received orders from Captain Brand, and sailed di-
rectly for Ocracoke. He reached the inlet after a voy-
age of a few days. There he halted to rest his men and
prepare for a fight with the pirates. He expected to
12 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
find Blackbeard just across the bar. He was not mis-
taken; for the pirates were waiting for him.
Lieutenant Maynard was a brave man and a good
fighter. He was also very strong. He was a good match
for Blackbeard, and was anxious to meet the chief of
the pirates in a hand-to-hand fight.
After he had refitted and put everything in order, he
sailed across the bar into the sound. There before him
was the big ship of the pirates. He was very glad to see
it. Now he would end the career of this bad man and
free the people. He turned his ship toward the pirates
and advanced rapidly upon them. Blackbeard was
ready, and gave his enemy a broadside. Many of May-
nard's men were swept overboard by the first fire. But
he continued to advance, and would have grappled with
the pirate but for an unfortunate mishap.
His vessel ran aground and stuck fast. Great fear
seized the men, and it looked as if all would be lost.
Blackbeard continued to fire upon the stranded ship
with all his guns. Twenty of Maynard's men were
killed, and the fire from the pirate's ship did not
slacken. Then Maynard thought that he would try a
trick. His vessel could not go to the pirates, so he
would make them come to him. He ordered all his me
THE CAROLINA PIRATE
to go down into the hold of the vessel. No one was left
on the deck but the dead and the dying.
Blackbeard thought that all of Maynard's men were
either killed or wounded, and moved his ship up along-
side to take possession. Blackbeard and twenty of his
men leaped aboard Maynard's ship. Instantly they
were met by twenty of Maynard's men, who rushed up
from below with the lieutenant at their head. The
pirates were taken completely by surprise, and stag-
They quickly recovered themselves and the battle
began. Every one knew that it was to be a fight to the
*finish. There could be no such thing as a drawn battle.
One side or the other must win, and woe to the con-
Each man picked out his foe, and the battle became
fierce. Blackbeard hunted for Maynard, and the lieu-
tenant met him. They fired their pistols at each other
and drew their swords. They rushed together and
fought hand-to-hand. Maynard was -the better swords-
man and soon ran Blackbeard through and through.
The pirate fell dead. At once all the other pirates sur-
rendered. Maynard cut off Blackbeard's head, put it
on the bow of his ship, and sailed away with his prison-
14 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Later all of the captured pirates were hanged. No
doubt they deserved it. The people of North Carolina
were very grateful to Lieutenant Maynard for putting
an end to Blackbeard's life. *
DANIEL BOONB 15
Daniel Boone was a great hunter. He lived in the
mountains on the banks of the Yadkin river. No man
in all the country could handle a gun as he could.
Whenever he pointed a gun at a squirrel, poor bunny
knew that death was near. The bears and the deer
knew his step, and ran for their lives whenever he was
Long before the Revolution, his father came with his
family from Pennsylvania to North Carolina to live.
He bought some land in Wilkes county, and built his
home. Daniel helped to cut down the trees and clear
up the fields. Daniel's father ploughed the land, and
planted corn and wheat. Soon there was a good farm
cleared up in the forest. On it Daniel lived with his
father and mother. He learned while a boy to handle a
gun, and often brought back meat enough from the
woods to last for weeks. Sometimes he would take
long hunting trips and be gone for quite a while. After
a time he married and had a home of his own.
Not many years passed before other people began to
come into the Yadkin country to live. Land was cleared
up all around Boone's house, and here and there over
16 NOETH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
the hills houses could be seen which the newcomers had
built. It was beginning to look like the place the
Boone's had left in Pennsylvania. Daniel did not like
for so many people to be living near him. He said he
wanted "elbow room."
"If these people keep coming," said he, "soon there
will not be a bear in all this country."
He thought more about bears than he did about peo-
ple. He soon became restless, and went off on a long-
hunt across the mountains into what is now the State
of Tennessee. Two or three backwoodsmen went along
with him. That was in 1760, while the French and
Indians were fighting the English colonies.
Boone and his companions crossed the Great Smokies
and hunted in the valley of the Holston river. They
killed a great many deer, and now and then other game
was brought down. They had some interesting adven-
tures with the Indians, and also some exciting chases
One day, as they were passing along a creek in Wash-
ington county, Boone saw some bear tracks. They had
just been made, and he knew that the animals could
not be far away. He at once followed in the direction
the bears had gone. He did this cautiously, to keep from
scaring the brutes. Very soon he came in sight of them.
DANIEL BOONE 17
There were three, two old ones and a young one. They
were walking slowly along through the woods
Boone crept up and shot one of the old ones dead.
The other old one saw him and ran directly toward him.
Boone fired at it, but, strange to say, the animal kept
coming. It was a bear of great size, and Boone did not
wish to come to a hand-to-hand fight. He had no time
to reload his gun, so he looked this way and that for a
chance to escape.
Near by was a large tree with branches hanging
down. He ran to this and climbed up to the first limbs.
Bruin was a climber, too, and began to follow up the
tree. Boone made his way to the top of the tree. The
bear followed, going from limb to limb.
When Boone got up as high as he could, he looked
down to see where the bear was. He saw Bruin coming
up as fast as he could. Boone did not know what to do.
The bear would be up to him in less than a minute, and
there was no time to load the gun. Boone pulled out
the ramrod of the gun, and when the bear came in reach
Boone whacked him over the nose with it. Bruin
whined with pain and backed clown the tree out of
Boone's reach. Then he tried again to get to Boone;
but when he came close enough, down came the ramrod
18 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
again upon his nose, harder than before. The bear
roared with pain.
The bear then went down out of reach and seemed to
be studying what next to do. Boone used this time to
load his gun. Then he took good aim and shot the bear
in the head. It was a good shot, and Bruin began to
go down the tree. He was badly wounded and bleeding
freely. Boone loaded again and shot the bear a second
time. This shot was fatal, and the brute fell heavily to
the ground. Then Boone came down the tree, reach-
ing the ground just as his companions came up.
"Ah! Boone," said one of them, "who was up the tree,
you or the bear?"
"The bear," answered Boone; and that was all he
ever told them about his adventure with the bear. He
then cut these words in the bark of the tree: "D. Boone
killd a bar on tree in the year 1760." It is said that the
tree is still standing and that these words can be seen
on it. While his spelling might have been better, his
shooting could not be beaten.
Shortly after that the huntsmen returned to the
banks of the Yadkin; but Boone was restless in his old
home and wanted to get out farther into the forest. He
wanted still more "elbow room."
Nine years later Boone sold his home in Wilkes
DANIEL BOONE 19
county, and went into Kentucky to make another home.
That State was then owned entirely by the Indians.
They called it Kaintuckee, "the Dark and Bloody
Ground," for the Indians were constantly fighting one
another there, and much blood was shed. Five other
men went with Boone. Their names were John Stuart,
Joseph Holden, James Moncey, William Cool, and John
Findly. They were all old hunters. On the way they
found game enough to satisfy their needs, and they
had many adventures with the Indians.
In order to get to the new country easily, they had to
open a road across the mountains. That took a long
time. Many dangers befell them, but they finally com-
The Indians troubled them a good deal with their
tricks, but Boone was more than a match for them.
Once while they were at work they heard a wild turkey
gobble near them. One of the men told Boone to go
out and kill the turkey for dinner.
"Not much!" said Boone; "that turkey is not the right
kind. It is an Indian trying to get a chance to put a
ball through my head."
Another time they heard some owls hooting in the
woods near by. They were keeping up a big racket as
if they were much excited.
20 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
"Let us go and see what those owls have found," said
Findly. "They are keeping up such a noise that I think
they have found a gang of turkeys."
"Don't you know that they are not owls?" asked
Boone. "Notice where the sound comes from. Owls
do not sit on the ground."
Sure enough, the sounds came from the ground, and
they knew that Indians were making them. Then one
of the hunters crept slowly along toward the place
where the sounds came from. He was keener eyed
than the Indians, and soon saw what looked like a
stump in the woods. He fired at the stump and an
Indian fell over with a groan. He had killed a red man.
When the road was finished, the hunters went back
for their families. There were about thirty persons in
the party that left North Carolina for Kentucky. Boone
was the leader. He led them to a place that was suit-
able for a settlement and halted. There they built
houses and a fort to protect themselves from the In-
dians. This place they called Boonesboro. Soon other
settlers came, and the town grew to be quite large.
One day Boone's daughter and two other girls were
out in a canoe near the town. Suddenly some Indians
came, swam out in the w r ater to the boat, and seized the
girls. They started with them to a distant village.
DANIEL BOONE 21
As they went along through the woods, one of the
girls broke off twigs and dropped them to let Boone
know which way they were going. An Indian saw her
doing this, and came to her with his tomahawk raised.
He told her that he would kill her if she did it again.
Then she secretly tore off pieces of dress and dropped
them along the way.
Boone and others quickly followed the Indians. They
could follow very well by the bits of dress. In a short
while they came up close to the red men. It was at
night, and they were sitting around a fire. Boone and
his men crept up and fired at the Indians. The redskins
fled, leaving the girls and two dead Indians behind.
Then the girls were carried back to their homes, which
they were glad to see once more.
At another time Boone was out in the woods alone.
The Indians came suddenly upon him and took him pris-
oner. They liked him because he was such a good
marksman. They adopted him as one of their tribe,
and made him paint his face and wear feathers. Boone
seemed to be satisfied, but all the time he was looking
for a good chance to get away.
Soon he had a chance and went back home. The In-
dians liked him so much that they could not give him
up. So they began to search for him. After a time
22 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
they found him in a tobacco barn, working on his to-
bacco. They pointed their guns at him and told him to
"Now, man of the long shot," said one of them, "we've
got you. No more can you get away."
"How are you?" said Boone pleasantly. "Have my
red brothers come to see me? Wait a minute, and* I
will give you some good tobacco."
He gathered two or three large leaves in his hands,
crushed them to powder, and dashed the fine tobacco
dust into the eyes and mouths of the Indians. There
was a great coughing and sneezing for some time, and
while that was going on Boone made his escape. The
Indians could not help from laughing at Boone's trick.
They never got hold of him again.
When more people came into Boonesboro to live,
Boone got restless again. He did not want to live in a
city. So he moved out toward the west; and as people
followed, he went farther and farther into the wilder-
ness. Finally he moved across the Mississippi river
into Missouri. There he had "elbow room" enough to
last a long time.
When he died his body was brought to Frankfort,
Kentucky, and buried. It is fitting that his grave
should be in the capital of the State which he founded.
TRYON AND THE REGULATORS 23
TRYON AND THE REGULATORS
Just before the Revolutionary War there was in the
central part of the colony a large number of men called
Regulators. They said that the people were taxed too
much; that their liberties had been taken away from
them, and that they ought to resist such unjust laws.
So they organized, chose leaders, and prepared to regu-
late, or put in good order, their own affairs. They de-
clared that they would fight rather than be robbed any
longer by the government.
Governor Tryon was the king's ruler in North Caro-
lina at the time. He heard of the action of the Regula-
tors, but laughed at it. With an oath he said that he
would teach them a lesson in good manners.
" The villains," said he, " want a good thing without
having to pay anything for it. How do they expect a
good government without paying taxes?"
Tryon sent all over the colony for men to come and
help him. He got eleven hundred men who said they
would help him whip the Regulators. These men were
well armed and brave. Tryon led them against the
Regulators. Newbern was at that time the capital of
the colony. He had to make a long march to Alamance
county, where the Regulators were. It took him about
24 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
two weeks to make the trip. When he got to Alamance
creek he found that the Regulators were not far off.
While waiting there Herman Husbands, the leader of
the Regulators, wrote him a letter. In it he asked
Governor Tryon if he would lighten their burdens.
"Curse your burdens," answered the governor. "You
must lay down your arms, obey the laws of your king,
and return to your homes."
Next day he marched toward the camp of the Regu-
lators and halted in half a mile of them. There he
waited to see if they had any answer to make him. The
Regulators marched up to within three hundred yards
of the king's soldiers and halted. The governor sent to
them a justice of the peace to warn them against blood-
shed. But the Regulators answered with loud shouts
of "fight." Tryon saw that they meant business; so he
got his men in line and prepared for battle.
While the two armies stood facing each other, Robert
Thompson, a prisoner in Tryon's hands, tried to escape
to the Regulators. Governor Tryon fired upon the poor
fellow and killed him almost- instantly. That was in
sight of the Regulators, who at once fired upon the sol-
diers of the governor. Then the governor ordered his
men to fire, but they did not obey the order.
"Fire upon the rascals," repeated Tryon. "Are you
afraid of them? Fire upon them or upon me."
TRYON AND THE REGULATORS 25
The order was then obeyed. The battle raged fiercely
for half an hour. Tryon brought up his cannon and
opened upon the Regulators. They could not stand
grapeshot, and fled to the woods. From behind trees
.they kept up the fight for two hours. Governor Tryon,
at the head of his troops, charged into the woods and
put them to flight. Many were left dead on the field.
Tryon's loss was about seventy killed and wounded,
while the Regulators lost over one hundred.
This was the first resistance to British rule that was
made in America. It was about five years before the
beginning of the Revolution.
After the battle Tryon spent some time in hunting
down the Regulators that were engaged in the battle.
Many were captured. Some were hanged and many
were put into prison and kept there for a long time.
Hundreds were forced to take an oath that they would
never again take up arms against the British govern-
Herman Husbands fled from the State. He went to
Pennsylvania to live, and years afterwards was in the
"Whiskey Rebellion" in that State. Governor Tryon,
shortly after the battle, was appointed Governor of
New York. He left in July, 1771, to begin his new
26 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
BRITISH STAMPS AT WILMINGTON
In 1765 the Parliament of England made a law
called the Stamp Act. This law required the people in
America to buy stamps from England to use for all
checks, notes, deeds, newspapers and the like. Every-
body who used such things had to buy these stamps,
because no business was allowed to be done without
them. England wanted to raise money to carry on
war, and thought this would be a good way to get it.
But the people in America did not like to be taxed
this way, as they had not been asked about the matter,
and were not allowed to Tote on the question. No
colony in America was allowed to have a legislator
in Parliament. So the colonists said they would not
buy the stamps. They would go along and do as they
had been doing, and let the stamps alone. But Eng-
land sent the stamps over and appointed men to sell
them. Then the king had to appoint men to make the
people buy them.
This made the colonists angry. People in North
Carolina said they would not use the stamps. They
said they would quit business before they would use
them. And they declared that no stamp seller should
BRITISH STAMPS AT WILMINGTON 27
stay in the colony. When a British ship reached the
Cape Fear with the stamps on board, the captain was
told that the stamps were not wanted. He saw on the
shore Colonels Hugh Waddell and John Ashe with a
large number of men to keep him from unloading; so
he sailed out and anchored near the mouth of the river
to see what would happen.
Shortly before that, James Houston had been ap-
pointed stamp agent. As soon as it was known that he
had been appointed, a large number of men called
upon him and urged him to resign his position. He
did this, and promised that he would have nothing to
do with the stamps.
Matters went on for some time without further
trouble. After a while two merchant vessels from
Philadelphia came in. When they landed, Colonel
William Dry, the collector, found that the clearance
papers had no stamps on them. He told Captain Lobb,
of the British vessel, about it; and the captain seized
both vessels for not using the stamps.
This act made the people of Wilmington so angry
that over five hundred men got their guns to drive the
British vessels from the harbor. Hugh Waddell was
at their head. First they went in search of Colonel
Dry, and made him give up the papers that had no
28 KORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
stamps upon them. Next they went to the house of
Mr. Pennington, collector of the port.
" We have come," said Colonel Waddell, " to demand
that you give up your place as collector. We want no
man in office who favors the buying of British stamps."
Mr. Pennington made some excuses, but they did not
satisfy the men around his house, and he was forced
Next day Colonel Waddell led his regiment of
patriots to Brunswick to arrest Captain Lobb. They
were determined to rid the colony of everybody that
had anything to do with the stamp selling. They be-
lieved that their rights were being trampled upon, and
they were terribly in earnest.
Wh'en they reached Brunswick they found that
Governor Tryon was there also. He had come for the
purpose of helping Captain Lobb. He had all the guns
in Fort Johnston spiked for fear that the patriots
would seize the fort and turn the guns upon the British
Cornelius Harnett carried a letter from John Ashe
to Governor Tryon. The letter told the governor that
the patriots were not after him, but had come for
Captain Lobb. Governor Tryon received him kindly,
but said that he would not give up the captain.
BRITISH STAMPS AT WILMINGTON 29
" Then we shall come and take him/' said Harnett.
" Governor, we have nothing against you; but we must
have this man who has interfered with our business."
Waddell and his men surrounded the house which
the governor was in; but it was soon found out that
Lobb had made his escape, and was then on board the
British gunboat, Viper. But the British ships were
without food. They sent a small boat to Wilmington
to buy some. This boat was seized and not allowed to
go back. So the British were entirely at the mercy of
Colonel Waddell and his men, as they could get
nothing to eat.
Then Governor Tryon sent for Hugh Waddell and
John Ashe. They came, and the governor asked them
what they were contending for.
" We want these merchant ships, which your agents
have seized, turned loose," said Waddell. " The owners
have committed no wrong, and we will not allow them
to be punished! "
"And," said Ashe, " this Stamp Act will be resisted
to blood and death, and we want it repealed! "
" I shall release the men that were arrested," said
Tryon; "but the British government has the making
or the unmaking of the Stamp Act."
The men were turned loose, and Colonel Waddell's
30 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
men went home, ready to resist any further attempts
to sell stamps.
There was now no stamp agent in the colony, nor
could anybody be found to take the office.
Thus it happened that no stamps were sold in North
Carolina. Soon the British government thought that
it was best not to try to force the Americans to buy
stamps, and the law was repealed.
THE EDENTON TEA PAKTY 31
THE EDENTON TEA PARTY
When the British heard that the Americans would
not buy the stamps that had been sent over, they be-
came very angry about it. They said the Americans
were stingy and rebellious, and that they should be
made to obey the laws. But that did not help to sell
the stamps. So they had to be sent back to England.
As the Americans would not buy the stamps, the
British repealed the Stamp Act and put a tax upon tea.
They thought the Americans would pay the tea tax
without question; for they supposed that the patriots
liked tea so well that they would never quit drinking
it, although it was taxed. They were mistaken in that,
Soon after the law was made for taxing tea, the news
reached North Carolina. There was a great deal of ex-
citement in many places. At Edenton everybody be-
came much excited, for that town was quite a tea
market. The Americans did not like the idea of paying
such taxes to England, because they were not allowed
the right to vote on the laws that taxed them. They
were not represented in the English Parliament, and
the cry arose, "No taxation without representation."
32 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
The people did not like the tax half so well as they
did the tea. And so they declared that they would not
pay the tax even if they had to quit drinking tea. That
was a day of tea parties, too. Every one drank tea ; and
often the people would meet at a neighbor's house and
spend the evening in social talk, drinking tea and play-
ing games. The tea party was a pleasant way of spend-
ing an evening.
At a tea party each guest made his own tea. The
leaves of the tea plant were brought to the table, and
at the same time a large vessel of boiling water was
brought. Each guest put a certain number of leaves in
a cup, poured the hot water over them, and placed the
saucer on top of the cup to let the leaves steep for
a while. Then the tea was ready for drinking.
The tea party that was held in Edenton on October
25, 1774, was quite different. No tea was drunk at that
party. The guests did not go there to drink tea. But it
was one of the most famous tea parties in North Caro-
lina history. It same about in this way : Not long after
the news of the tea tax reached Edenton the ladies of
the town said that they would quit using tea. They
appointed a meeting place to talk over the matter.
Fifty-one of them met at the house of Mrs. Elizabeth
King. As the town of Edenton had only five hundred
THE EDENTON TEA PARTY 33
inhabitants, it is evident that nearly all the ladies were
Mrs. Penelope Barker was made chairman of the
meeting. She made a talk, saying that she thought the
ladies of Edenton ought not to use the hateful tea any
"We must not use the tea," said Mrs. Barker, "as
long as the tax is on ft. I, for one, will never use it
again, unless the tax is removed."
Then the speaking began. Nearly all of the ladies
had patriotic speeches to make. They were indignant
that England should dare to put a tax upon their fa-
vorite drink; and they spoke their minds freely.
"My tea cups," said Mrs. Valentine, "shall never hold
any more of the vile stuff, unless England instantly
removes the tax."
" This tea drinking is all a habit, anyway," said Miss
Isabella Johnston. "A drink made from the dried
leaves of the raspberry vine is far better than the hate-
ful tea with the hateful tax upon it."
Mrs. Hoskins, Mrs. King and others declared that
anything would be better than giving up their liberties
by drinking tea with a tax on it.
After more talk of this kind, a committee was ap-
pointed to write some resolutions on the subject. The
34 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
committee brought in a resolution saying that the la-
dies of Edenton would stop using tea, or wearing any
goods made in England, until all taxes upon them had
been repealed. All the ladies signed the resolution and'
went home in good humor, feeling that they had done
their duty as patriotic dames.
And thus it happened that there was no more tea
drinking in Edenton for a long time; and there were no
more tea parties until after the Revolution was over.
FIRST SOUND OF LIBERTY'S BELL 35
FIRST SOUND OF LIBERTY'S BELL
In May, 1775, a number of men met in Charlotte to
hold a county convention. Abraham Alexander was
made chairman. John Alexander and Ephraim Brevard
were made secretaries.
These men had met for the purpose of attending to
some business which concerned their county. They
knew that the colonies were expecting trouble with
England. But they did not know that the war had al-
ready begun. There were no telegraph wires in those
days, and news traveled slowly.
One day, while they were busy in the convention, a
man on horseback rode into Charlotte as fast as he
could come. The place was then a village. Everybody
ran out into the street to see what was the matter. The
man was from Massachusetts, and he brought the news
of the battle of Lexington. That was the nineteenth
of May, 1775, one month after the battle was fought.
This man went into the room where the convention
was being held. He told them how the British had
shot some Americans at Lexington.
"The war has begun," said he. "Some of our men
were shot down while standing on the lawn in Lexing-
36 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
ton. The British then went on to Concord to destroy
our powder and balls; but when they got there they
found our men, and there was a fight."
"How was that?" asked many excitedly. "Did the
men of Massachusetts dare to fight with the British?"
"Yes, indeed," said the man. "Our people came in
from all over the country and shot at the British from
behind fences and trees. The redcoats were glad
enough to get away from there. Our men chased them
back to Boston, and killed a number of them."
"That ends British rule in America," said Brevard.
"You will see that I am right."
To the south hurried the messenger to let others
know of what had taken place. The convention broke
up, for the news had created intense excitement. The
battle was on everybody's mind. It was talked about
on the streets and in the homes.
That evening when the convention met there was
still much excitement. Men were whispering to each
other. Some were writing rapidly, and all were talk-
ing. Then one member arose and made a motion that a
committee be appointed to consider what should be
done about the war that had begun.
"This is the time when all Americans should stand
together," said he. "If Massachusetts has been at-
FIRST SOUND OF LIBERTY'S BELL 37
tacked, that means a blow at North Carolina. I, for
one, am in favor of sending help to our brethren."
The committee was appointed and drew up resolu-
tions. Ephraim Brevard wrote the resolutions, and
they were signed by every member of the convention.
That was on the 20th of May, the day after they had
heard about the battle of Lexington. In these resolu-
tions North Carolina was declared to be free, and the
men who signed them pledged themselves to stand by
The meeting then adjourned and the men went home.
Their neighbors did not know what to think about the
step which had been taken. Many were afraid that
England would send soldiers there and hang all of the
men who had signed the paper. Eleven days later
they met in Charlotte again. This time they organized
a government for the county of Mecklenburg, which,
according to their previous resolution, was now inde-
pendent of England.
"The other day we declared our independence of
England," said Brevard. "Now we must set up a gov-
ernment of our own. Governor Martin, the king's rep-
resentative, has fled from the colony. We must take
charge of our own affairs and run them as it shall suit
38 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Without further words they adopted rules for the
government of the county. This was the first act in
America that meant separation from England. At all
other places people thought that the colonies would get
what they were fighting for and still continue to belong
to the mother country. But in North Carolina they de-
clared for entire freedom.
These resolutions were copied and read all over the
country. They helped to raise the courage of the Ameri-
cans. Soon the British tried to come into North Caro-
lina, but they could not make a landing at Wilmington,
and had to go on to some other place.
SECOND SOUND OF LIBERTY'S BELL 6V
SECOND SOUND OF LIBERTY'S BELL
After the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence
no further action was taken for nearly a year. Patriots
all over the colony were talking about the Declaration,
and saying the colony ought to take other steps; but no
one did anything to get the colony to act.
Finally Colonel Samuel Johnston, about the first of
the year 1776, called a congress to meet at Halifax in
April. This meeting took place on the fourth of that
month. Colonel Johnston was elected chairman. The
members talked about declaring the colony free. Cor-
nelius Harnett, of Wilmington, was particularly bold
in what he said. He urged the other members to take a
stand for freedom from England.
"England has passed bad laws," said he, "and we are
no longer obliged to obey them. I give my vote for
liberty. Let others do what they may, I am for inde-
"Can we afford to take such a step when the British
are at our doors?" asked a member. "You all know
that a British fleet and army are now at the mouth of
the Cape Fear, ready to land and destroy our property."
"That is why we should speak for independence,"
answered Harnett. "Let us show these tyrants that we
40 NORTH CAROLINA HiSTOKY STOKJliS
are not afraid of tnem. Let us pass a declaration of in-
dependence, and then go to the Cape Fear and prevent
their landing. We can drive them from our shores."
Nearly all the members agreed with Harnett. A
committee was named to write some resolutions. Har-
nett was made chairman of the committee. He wrote
the resolutions and read them to the congress on the
12th of April. These resolutions declared that the
colony ought to be free. They also instructed the dele-
gates at Philadelphia to vote for the independence of
all the colonies.
As soon as Harnett had finished reading, the mem-
bers began to applaud, and cries for Harnett and inde-
pendence were heard on the streets. A motion was
made to adopt the resolutions, and a hundred seconds
to it were made. With a shout the motion was carried.
People on the streets soon found out what was being-
done, and began to gather in crowds. The bells rang
out for independence. The old town was ablaze with
News of this heroic act was sent abroad. It raised
the spirits of the Americans, and made them more anx-
ious to meet the British. Before the year was out ten
thousand North Carolina soldiers had been raised to
drive the British from the colony.
THE FAIR TORY 41
There was a beautiful lady living in Fayetteville in
1776, who aided the British in that year against the
patriots. This lady was Flora McDonald, a Scotch
woman, who had corne to North Carolina in 1774. She
was loved by the Scotch settlers on the Cape Fear, and
had a great deal of influence over them.
She was born in Scotland, and lived there until the
year before the Revolution. When she was a young
woman she saved the life of Prince Charles after he
had been beaten in a great battle. That was in 1745,
when Prince Charles was trying to take the throne of
England from King George II.
Flora McDonald believed that Prince Charles should
be king instead of the coarse old king who was then on
the throne. She got all of her kinsmen and friends to
join Prince Charles in making war on the English. It
was a short contest. At first the Scots were successful,
but later the English sent a powerful army into Scot-
land to finish the war.
Prince Charles had a fine little army, but they were
not a good match for the English. The two armies met
at Culloden. The Scotch fought bravely, but the Eng-
42 NOKTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
lish won the day. The battlefield was covered with the
dead and wounded.
Prince Charles was in the battle, and barely escaped
being killed. He fled from the battlefield pursued by
the English. He narrowly escaped capture, which
would have meant death for him, and succeeded in get-
ting to the woods and hiding himseli.
After staying in the woods for some days, he came
out and went to the house of Flora McDonald. He was
hungry and penniless. He was received with kindness
and told that he still had friends, and was taken and
cared for. But it was unsafe for him to remain in Scot-
land. The English soldiers were looking for him every-
where. It was expected that they would come and
search the house at any time. So he had to get away.
How to escape was the hard thing to decide upon. He
would be recognized as soon as seen, and then his head
would be cut off.
His friends began to think of plans to get him to a
place of safety. It was Flora McDonald who thought
of the plan that succeeded. She pretended to be going
to a little island on the coast of Scotland. Prince
Charles was disguised as a lady's waiting maid, and
went along with the fair lady. They passed through
crowds of people, and even soldiers, but no one knew
THE FAIR TORY 43
the Prince in his strange dress. Once they were
stopped, but each of them was sensible enough to
answer all questions with satisfaction. After some
time they reached the island, and soon Prince Charlea
found his way to the continent of Europe, where he
found other friends.
Flora McDonald lived in Scotland for thirty years
after that time. She watched the fortunes of Prince
Charles, hoping one day to see him king; but when he
died all hope of that was lost. She came to America
and made her home among the Highlanders on the
In 1775 news^reached Fayetteville that war between
England and the colonies was certain. In May of that
year it was known that the war had begun in Massa-
chusetts. It soon became known, also, that the patriots
at Mecklenburg had declared their independence.
Flora McDonald heard all of these things, and was
much opposed to the Americans. She was a strong
friend of England now.
"I fought England to put 'Bonnie Charles' upon the
throne, yet I cannot aid the Americans in this rebel-
lion," she would say. Many Scotch settlers thought as
Late in the fall of 1775 news came to the Tories ar
44 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Fayetteville that Sir Henry Clinton, with a large fleet
and army, was coming to North Carolina. He had sent
word down to the Cape Fear that he hoped to meet a
large number of the friends of the king at Wilmington
early in February, 1776. He expected to take that
place, and, with the help of the Tories, conquer North
Carolina. The Americans who aided the British were
called "Tories." Those who fought the British w r ere
called "rebels" and "patriots'- and "Whigs."
Flora McDonald was very active in getting the Tories
together. She sent letters and messages over the set-
tlement, urging the people to assemble in the name of
King George. By the beginning of 1776 she had helped
to get together about sixteen hundred Tories. They
soon had a chance to fight, for Colonel Caswell and his
Whigs had prepared to resist them. The battle
was fought and the Tory army was completely de-
Some time after the Revolution Flora McDonald re-
turned to Scotland, where she spent her last days. Her
life was a sad one, because she had engaged in two
great undertakings, both of which were failures. She
is known in history as one of the heroic women of hef
DEFEAT OF THE TORIES 4:5
DEFEAT OF THE TORIES
At the beginning of the Revolution there were many
Tories in North Carolina. These people believed that
the Americans were doing wrong in fighting England.
Many of them joined the British armies and fought
against their countrymen.
Flora McDonald and her husband, Alan McDonald,
were very active in organizing the Tories. It was quite
strange that these two were in favor of the English
king. They had been active against him in Scotland,
and had come to North Carolina to regain the money
they had lost m fighting for Prince Charles. But when
the time came for them to decide what to do they sided
with King George. They got many of the Scotch set-
tlers to join against the North Carolina patriots. So
in January, 1776, there were more Tories in arms in
North Carolina than patriots. Governor Martin had
promised to raise ten thousand Tories to join the
British when they should come to Wilmington in that
year. It was a gloomy time for the patriots.
There were a few North Carolina soldiers watching
the Tories. Colonel Moore had a small force in the
neighborhood of Fayetteville. Colonel Caswell was
46 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
coming with another force from Newbern. Their com-
bined strength did not amount to twelve hundred men,
while the Tories had more than two thousand armed
Caswell posted himself ut Moore's Creek Bridge,
which was situated between the Tories and Wilming-
ton, where the Tories wanted to go. Moore was at
Rockfish, some miles below Fayetteville.
General Donald McDonald, the Tory leader, marched
up in sight of Moore's little army and demanded its sur-
render. He was very haughty and overbearing.
"I command you," said he, "in the name of King
George, to lay down your arms and take the oath of
Colonel Moore declined to do this. He said that he
was engaged in a noble cause, and invited General Mc-
Donald to join him in this cause.
The Tory leader turned off and hurried on toward
Wilmington. When he came into the neighborhood of
Caswell's little army, he sent a messenger to demand
the surrender of the patriots. Caswell replied that he
did not come there to surrender, nor did he expect to
surrender. Then McDonald got his men ready for bat-
tle. But as General McDonald was sick and could not
DEFEAT OF THE TORIES 47
lead his men, the command was given to Colonel Don-
As the bridge had been taken away, the Tories had
to cross the creek on two girders that had held the
bridge. The patriots were on the other side ready to
shoot down any men that attempted to cross.
Soon they heard the Tories give three cheers for
"King George and broadswords," then the long roll on
the drum, and the call to arms by the bagpipes. It was
still dark when the patriots heard the tramping of the
Scots and knew that the battle was about to begin.
McLeod and Campbell led the Tories, who appeared on
the other side of the creek.
"Who goes there?" asked the sentinel at the bridge.
"A friend," answered McLeod.
"A friend of whom?"
"Of the king," was the reply.
The sentinel did not answer. McLeod thought that
he was one of his own men, and addressed him in
Scotch. But as no answer came back he ordered his
men to fire. They did so, and made a rush to get across
the bridge. McLeod and Campbell got across, but the
other Tories were shot down as fast as they crowded
upon the logs. The two commanders and many of the
men were killed.
48 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
The patriots then charged across the creek, attacked
the Tories and put them to flight, capturing eight hun-
dred of them. Many wagons, horses and guns fell into
the hands of the patriots. General McDonald and Alan
McDonald were taken prisoners. The patriots lost only
It was a great victory. Not only did it stop the
Tories from going to Wilmington, but it kept the
British from making a landing there. Thus North
Carolina was saved that year.
Adventures of an American Spy. Pages 37-38, Book
North Carolina History Stories
THE NOBLE FOUR HUNDRED
When the British captured Charleston nearly all of
South Carolina surrendered. Cornwallis, the British
commander, then got ready to conquer North Carolina.
He sent Colonel Tarleton ahead to destroy any force
that he might meet.
There were two small armies in North Carolina then.
General Caswell had one in the eastern part of the
State and General Rutherford one near Charlotte.
These two patriots were watching to see what Corn-
wallis would attempt to do.
General Rutherford was raising all the men he could,
for he thought that the British would soon be coming
into North Carolina. He wanted to get together a force
large enough to give Cornwallis some trouble when he
did come. So he was sending here and there to get the
North Carolina heroes to join him. Before he had got-
ten together an army large enough to meet the British,
10 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
he heard of the assembling of a large body of Tories at
Ramseur's Mill, in the mountains. These were under
Colonel John Moore, a noted Tory leader. About thir-
teen hundred had already assembled, and the whole
country seemed to be full of them.
Rutherford knew that this body of men would do a
great deal of harm unless they were beaten. He sent
Colonel Francis Locke and Major David Wilson with
four hundred men to keep a watch, and, if the situation
was favorable, to attack them. These patriots set out
at once, and on the 19th of June reached the neighbor-
hood of Ramseur's Mill.
That night the patriots held a council of war. All
the officers in the little army met and talked over the
matter. All were in favor of attacking the enemy next
"It is true they have three men to our one," said
Colonel Locke, "but one brave man in the cause of jus-
tice and right is worth a dozen of these rascals."
"Let us give the scamps a blow that they will not
soon forget," said Major Wilson. "Let us march at mid-
night and attack them at dawn. They shall not escape
It was decided to make the attack at daylight next
morning. So they got in place before daybreak, and
THE NOBLE FOUR HUNDRED 11
waited for the time. Just as the day broke the patriots
on horseback charged up the hill toward the Tory camp.
The Tories fled at the first attack, but soon recovered
from their fear and began to return the fire. The Tory-
fire was too hot for the horsemen; so they ran back
down the hill. The Tories began to pursue them. But
the infantry came up just then and fired rapidly upon
the Tories. Many of them fell, and they had to retreat
up the hill. With a shout the patriots followed.
The Tories got into a strong place on top of the hill,
and the patriots could not drive them out. Colonel
Locke began to retreat down the hill with his men.
Just then Colonel Hardin, with another body of pa-
triots, came upon the field and opened fire upon the
Tories. They in turn ran back up the hill, followed by
Locke and Hardin. Their position was stormed, and
the Tories fled to a position on the other side of the
hill. Then they sent in a flag of truce. The request
was that there should be no more fighting until the
dead could be buried and the wounded attended to.
Colonel Locke refused this request.
"Tell Colonel Moore," said he, "that I give him ten
minutes in which to surrender. If at the end of that
time he does not, then I march upon him."
When the minutes were out the patriots made a
12 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
charge upon the Tories. They fled, leaving their dead
and wounded behind. The field was covered with them.
. This was a great victory for the patriots. It was one
of the most brilliant affairs in the whole war. The
four hundred North Carolina soldiers had met and de-
feated a force more than three times their number.
This victory raised the hopes of the Americans; and the
Tories began to creep back to their homes and firesides.
About the same time Colonel Bryan, another Tory,
was raising men for the British army on the Yadkin
river. General Rutherford heard of this and went
against him. Bryan had heard of Moore's fate at Ram-
seur's Mill. So he did not wait to see Rutherford. He
got out of the country as quickly as he could.
OOBNWALLIS IN A HORNETS* NEST 13
CORNWALLIS IN A HORNETS' NEST.
Cornwallis finished the conquest of South Carolina in
the summer of 1780. He was determined to conquer
North Carolina, too. Nothing, he thought, would be
able to stop him.
It was in September that his army began to move
northward. There was no American army to oppose
him. Gates had been beaten a short time before at
Camden. But there was a small force of North Caro-
lina troops, under Colonel W. R. Davie, watching the
British army. This little band was made up of about
one hundred and fifty men on horseback.
They were very active men, and gave the British a
great deal of trouble. Sometimes they would gallop
down upon a British foraging party, charge upon them
with their sabres, and be gone before the British could
recover from their surprise. At other times they would
appear in front of the line of march and make such a
noise that Cornwallis would order a halt, thinking that
an army was about to attack him. Again, they would
gallop around to the rear of the enemy, put spurs to
their horses, and charge right into the British lines,
causing a big stir and bustle, and be off before the
14: NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
enemy could do anything. In this way Colonel Davie
and his dragoons worried the British a great deal. They
had made up their minds to drive Cornwallis out of
It was about the last of September that the British
came to Charlotte. Davie had reached there first, and
resolved to give them a hot reception, and show them
how North Carolinians received visitors when they
came unbidden. For that purpose he stationed his little
band so that they could receive the British as they
came up the street.
Charlotte was then a town of about twenty families.
It had two streets crossing each other at right angles.
The courthouse was near the crossing of these streets.
Davie put one division of his soldiers near the court-
house behind a stone wall. He placed two other divis-
ions a little farther down the street, up which the
British were expected to come. With these arrange-
ments made they awaited the coming of the redcoats.
They did not have very long to wait, for soon the
British came charging up the road, expecting to see the
Americans scatter and run like rabbits before them.
But they were mistaken. The North Carolinians did
not fire until the British were in good range. At the
first volley many British fell from their horses. The
CORNWALLIS IN A HORNETS* NEST 15
others continued to advance, but another withering fire
came from the Americans.
Again Cornwallis ordered his men to charge and
drive the Americans from behind the stone wall. They
came in a headlong rush, but Davie and his men were
ready for them. The volleys rang out, once, twice,
thrice, and the. British fled, leaving the road covered
with dead and wounded. The third attack shared the
same fate, and it seemed that Davie's little band was a
good match for the whole British army.
The British were determined to capture this Hor-
nets' Nest; so Cornwallis sent some men to attack the
North Carolinians on the side. Davie saw what they
were up to. He thought that it was a good time for the
hornets to leave their nest, as it was beginning to be a
little warm for them. They left Charlotte to the British
and retreated toward Salisbury.
Cornwallis sent a detachment of cavalry to catch
Davie and his brave little army. They galloped up the
road after the Americans; but when they came in reach
Davie and his men were ready for them again. They
fired upon the British and put them all to flight. Then
Davie and his men rode on to Salisbury.
Several days after this Cornwallis heard that Colonel
Ferguson, one of his bravest Qtticers ? ka4 been Defeated
16 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
and slain by an army of mountaineers at King's Moun-
tain. This was a great blow to the British general. He
concluded that there were too many hornets' nests in
North Carolina, and that it was not a very good time
to go farther north. He retreated into South Carolina
to wait until cooler times should come.
HEROES OF M'INTYEB'S 17
HEROES OF McINTYRE'S
While Cornwallis was in Charlotte he needed pro-
visions for his army. There was no bread and meat in
the town. Colonel Davie had taken good pains not to
leave any there for the British. Cornwallis had heard
that there was a considerable quantity of provisions on
Mr. Mclntyre's farm, about seven miles from Charlotte.
One morning in October, 1780, he sent four hundred
men with wagons to capture these provisions and bring
them to camp. This large number of men was sent be-
cause he was afraid that Colonel Davie with his dra-
goons might be near. Besides, he wanted to catch all
the chickens, turkeys, pigs and cows that might be seen.
They started early in the morning so that they could
load up and get back the same day. They took with
them a pack of hounds to catch the poultry and the pigs.
As they went they shouted for King George. People
living along the road saw and heard them, but kept at
Presently the soldiers came to a farm where a boy
was ploughing in the field some distance from the road.
As they were passing they gave a shout for "King
George and merry England." The boy stopped and
18 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
looked at them a moment; then he unhitched his horse
from the plough, leaped upon his back, and rode rapidly
across the field to the woods. The British jelled at him
to stop, but he kept going. Soon he reached the woods,
took a by-path, galloped with all his might to the road,
and came out ahead of the British column. He put
spurs to his horse and rode rapidly up the road toward
Mclntyre'Sj for he knew the British were going there.
As he went he spread the news that the British were
coming. At every house he shouted the alarm.
When he reached Mclntyre's it was yet early in the
day. Quickly he told the news and dashed up the road
to tell the minute men the enemy was coming. Mr.
Mclntyre and his family got away as quickly as possi
ble, but they could not carry anything with them ex-
cept their guns. They ran to the woods, and had just
hidden themselves when the British came in sight.
In the meantime the boy had gone on spreading the
news. The patriots began to join Mr. Mclntyre in the
woods near the farm. Colonel George Graham with
twelve dragoons came and halted some distance from
the house. He could see what was going on at the farm.
The British had taken possession of the place. They
were chasing the chickens and the turkeys over the lot.
Some were killing the pigs and the cows. Others were
HEROES OF M'INTYRE'S 19
out in the field gathering fruit and vegetables. The
wagons were being filled with the provisions. Every
one was hurrying to and fro.
Some of the British ran out into a lot where a num-
ber of beehives were. One soldier knocked one of the
hives over. Then, in the scuffle to get away, two or
three hives were overturned. The bees came out in
swarms and attacked the redcoats. There was a great
scampering of the soldiers. They did not know how to
fight bees, so they ran with all their might to get out
of the way. The bees had won a great victory.
Out in the woods Graham, Mclntyre and others were
watching the British. They could not help from laugh-
ing when the soldiers got among the bees. They did
not feel that they were strong enough to attack the red-
coats, but decided to give them some trouble when they
started back to Charlotte. They crept up as near as
they could and noticed what was being done at the
house. But Mr. Mclntyre became so anxious about his
house and property that he could not control himself.
He wanted to drive away the enemy from his home.
"Boys," said he, "I can't stand this any longer. See
how they are destroying my things. I pick the captain.
Every one choose his man and shoot to kill." With that
he pointed his rifle at the British captain, standing in
20 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
the porch, and pulled the trigger. Each of the others
picked out a man and did the same. The captain, with
nine soldiers and two horses, fell dead at the first fire.
The fire was repeated and others fell. There was at
once a great uproar among the British. The trumpets
sounded and the men came running from the fields.
By the time they had formed in line the patriots had
changed their position and were pouring in a deadly
fire from another direction. Men and horses were shot
down by the score. The British ran here and there to
no purpose. They were panic-stricken.
"Set the dogs on the rascals!" shouted some of the
redcoats. The dogs ran to the woods, but soon returned
whining and howling. One had been killed and others
wounded. Then the soldiers charged into the woods,
but they could not find the patriots. The Americans
changed their position every time they fired. The
British were being shot down, but could not return the
fire with any effect.
There was great hurrying to get away from the farm.
The loaded wagons rattled down the road, with the
soldiers straggling after them. The horses were killed
and the wagons blocked the road until there was hope-
less confusion. For nearly seven miles the British ran
with all their might, and the patriots kept shooting
HEROES OF M'JNTYRE'S 21
them down. Other country people, hearing what was
going on, seized their guns and joined the patriots. The
British were chased to Charlotte, which they reached
after having lost many men and horses. They said that
every bush on the road concealed a rebel.
Thus it was that Cornwallis's men got into another
hornets' nest. They left North Carolina soon after that
and returned to South Carolina.
22 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
ROUGH RIDERS OP THE SMOKIES
Cornwallis wished to get supplies for his army and
to rouse the Tories. For that purpose he sent Colonel
Patrick Ferguson with eleven hundred and fifty men to
western North Carolina. This officer was one of the
bravest and most skillful in the British army. He went
to the foot of the Blue Ridge, and sent word to Colonel
Isaac Shelby that he was coming to destroy the settle-
ments and kill all the people, unless they joine.d the
Colonel Shelby received the message, but it had a
different effect from the one Ferguson desired. There
were many other patriots in the settlements along the
French Broad and the Holston like Colonel Shelby.
They were anxious for a chance to meet the British on
the battlefield. Nothing could please them more than
to have Ferguson attempt to carry out his threat. They
sent him an urgent invitation to come on.
These hardy mountain settlers were good fighters.
They had fought the Indians many times, and were
skillful in the use of arms. Besides, they were excellent
riders. They loved freedom, and were ready to shed
their blood for it. When they heard that the British
BOUGH RIDERS OF THE SMOKIES 23
were coming, word was sent from settlement to settle-
ment to get weapons in order and to assemble at Syca-
more Shoals on the 25th of September. Colonel Camp-
bell, a Virginia patriot, was also informed, and he came
with four hundred men from the Old Dominion.
At the appointed time there were more than a thou-
sand mounted men at the place of meeting. Colonel
Campbell was chosen as leader. Colonels Shelby,
Sevier, McDowell and Williams were to be advisory
commanders. Parson Doak preached a parting ser-
mon, telling them to go forth and smite the enemy
"with the sword of the Lord and of Gideon."
Over the mountains they went in a gallop. They
were afraid that Ferguson's heart would fail him, and
that he would turn back. So they galloped by night
and by day. On through mountain defiles and gaps
they hurried, anxious to meet the proud enemy who had
threatened to burn their homes. As they hurried on,
other riders joined them until there were eighteen hun-
dred ^sturdy patriots hastening to meet the enemy.
Ferguson heard of what was coming. He was afraid
to meet these rough riders from the Balsams and the
Smokies. So he turned back and traveled east as fast
as he could. At the same time he sent a flying messen-
24 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
ger to South Carolina for help. He had raised a storm
in the "Land of the Sky," and was now flying before it.
Colonel Campbell thought that Ferguson would run.
To prevent his escape, nine hundred and ten of the fast-
est and boldest riders were selected and sent on in rapid
pursuit. They pushed on and overtook the enemy at
Ferguson had halted on top of the mountain and for-
tified his position. He boasted that "all the rebels in
hell" could not take him. He found out that the rebels
in Western North Carolina could. Soon after he halted,
the mountaineers came in sight of the British. They
dismounted, tied their horses, formed into columns and
began to advance up the mountain side. They were
armed with rifles, sabres and tomahawks. They were
Indian fighters and knew how to dodge bullets.
When the British cavalry charged down the hill upon
them, they dodged behind trees and shot the riders.
Three times the British rushed upon them, but each
time the deadly fire of the rough riders rang out, and
many of the enemy fell to rise no more. At last Fergu-
son himself, leading the last charge, was pierced with
seven bullets and fell dead. All the British were either
killed or captured.
After the battle the officers of the mountaineers held
ROUGH RIDERS OF THE SMOKIES 25
a council of war. They decided that nine of the cap-
tured Tories were traitors to their country and deserved
death. They were promptly hanged. Then these men
gave their prisoners and spoils to the American authori-
ties and set out for their homes. They had been away
from home about one month, and had performed one of
the most brilliant deeds of the whole Revolutionary
Cornwallis heard of the event soon after he had got-
ten into a hornets' nest at Charlotte. He at once re-
treated to South Carolina, and gave up the conquest of
North Carolina for that year.
26 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
GENERAL GREENE WITHOUT A PENNY
Nathaniel Greene was one of the best generals in the
American army. He was General Washington's right-
hand man. More than once he had done things for
which Washington had praised, and Congress had
When Gates was beaten in the battle of Camden it
was thought that Greene was the man who should take
his place. Washington believed that Greene would be
able to employ the attention of Cornwallis better than
any other general in the army. For that reason Gates
was recalled and General Greene was sent to take com-
mand of the army in North Carolina.
He came to Hillsboro in the fall of 1780. The" army
was in bad condition. The Americans had been so badly
beaten at the battle of Camden they could not bear
to hear even the name of Cornwallis. The army was
small and without provisions. Greene hardly knew
what to do, but he realized that it would not do to be
idle. He divided his little army into two divisions. One
of these he sent into the western part of South Caro-
lina to attack Tarleton. This division was under Gen-
GENERAL GREENE WITHOUT A PENNY 27
eral Morgan. The other, under General Huger, re-
mained in the neighborhood of Charlotte.
General Greene himself was very active. He was
traveling here and there trying to raise more troops
and to get money and supplies. Sometimes he was
alone, and at other times members of his staff went
with him. One night he was riding along the road from
Guilford courthouse to Salisbury, entirely alone. He
had been trying to raise some money among the rich
landowners of that part of North Carolina, but had
failed everywhere. He was tired and discouraged.
Presently he heard the sound of horses' hoofs in front
coming towards him. He stopped and reined his horse
to one side of the road and waited. The sounds came
nearer. Soon he could tell from the sound of voices
that they were not British soldiers, but citizens return-
ing from Salisbury.
When they came up he spoke to them. They halted
and exchanged greetings.
"Did you see any British soldiers at Salisbury?"
asked General Greene.
"Yes," said one of the men, "a company of cavalry
came in while we were there. They were rejoicing over
a great victory that Tarleton has gained over Morgan."
28 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Greene knew that the men had not recognized him,
and he did not want to say anything that would make
him known to them. At the same time he was over-
whelmed by the bad news. But he hid his feelings.
"How is that?" asked Greene. "Have the two armies
met in battle?"
"Yes, indeed; and one division of Greene's army has
been completely destroyed, and Cornwallis is after the
This was a piece of bad news.' General Greene put
spurs to his horse and galloped off, leaving the coun-
trymen wondering who he was. He could not believe
the report, for General Morgan would surely have sent
a messenger. Still he was in a depressed state of mind,
Soon he came to a large house by the roadside. He
decided that he would stop and ask permission to stay
all night. He dismounted and knocked at the door. A
lady opened to him.
" You see at your door, madam," said he, " General
Greene, of the American army, homeless, penniless and
almost friendless. Will you allow him to spend the
night under your roof?"
"General Greene is welcome to this house and all that
is in it," said the lady.
GENERAL GREENE WITHOUT A PENNY 29
She then called a servant, who took the general's
horse to the stables.
"Come in, General Greene, and I will have tea pre-
pared for you. I am Mrs. Steele, and my neighbors will
tell you whether I am a Tory or a patriot."
In a little while a bountiful supper was ready, and
while Greene was eating, Mrs. Steele took out from a
safe a bag of gold and gave it to him.
"This is the savings of many years/' she said, "and I
know of no better use to which to put it than for the
defense of my country. Take it, and may it be service-
able to you. I only wish it were more."
General Greene thanked her, and said that it would
be a most valuable means of getting supplies for his
army. Just then some one knocked loudly at the door.
Mrs. Steele opened the door and found a man, dressed
in the ragged uniform of an American soldier, standing
there. lie asked if General Greene was there.
"I was told that he might be here. I have important
dispatches from General Morgan."
By that time Greene was at the door, and the man
with a salute delivered the papers into his hands.
"I am a messenger from General Morgan," he con-
tinued, "who told me to inform you that he had met
30 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
Colonel Tarleton at the Cowpens and had killed or cap-
tured almost his entire force."
"Thank God for that!" said General Greene, as he
opened the dispatches. He found that Morgan had
gained a most brilliant victory, and was then on his way
to join the main army under Huger.
Next morning Greene and the messenger bade fare-
well to Mrs. Steele, and hastened to join the army on
THE FALL OF A PATRIOT 31
THE FALL OF A PATRIOT
As soon as Cornwallis heard that General Morgan
had beaten Tarleton at the Cowpens, he set out from
South Carolina with his whole army to cut off Morgan's
retreat. He knew that the American general would try
to get back to North Carolina to rejoin General Greene.
He thought that he could cut him off at the Catawba
river and capture his army and set free the prisoners.
He marched as rapidly as he could. Hardly any time
was given the men to rest. Day and night he hurried
along. He must get to the fords of the Catawba before
Morgan. But Morgan was no idler. Knowing that
Cornwallis would try to cut him off, he made up his
mind to reach the Catawba before Cornwallis. He
marched as rapidly as he could. His men rested little
either by day or by night. He must get to the river be-
It was a great race. Morgan had the start, and he
kept his advantage. He reached the river and passed
over before Cornwallis arrived. The river rose during
the night, and Cornwallis could not get over for two
days. During that time Morgan rested and sent his
prisoners to a place of safety.
32 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
General Greene placed General Davidson at Mc-
Cowan's ford with three hundred North Carolina sol-
diers to prevent the British from crossing. He and
Morgan led the army away. Cornwallis with the whole
British army was on the other side of the river, waiting
for the water to fall.
General Davidson was a brave North Carolina sol-
dier. He had given the British a great deal of trouble
the year before, when they attempted to conquer North
Carolina. He was ever on the watch for a chance to
give the British a blow, and he usually hit hard.
On the morning of February 1, 1781, Cornwallis be-
gan to cross the river. Colonel Webster, with one
division, crossed at Beattie's ford. Cornwallis himself
led the other division. He came to McCowan's ford
early in the morning while it was yet dark. On the
other side of the river could be seen the fires of the
Cornwallis saw that he must fight his way across.
"Who would have thought that the rebels would make
a stand here?" he said to General O'Hara.
"They mean business, too," said the other.
General O'Hara was given the task of driving Gen-
eral Davidson from the river. He ordered Colonel Hall
to cross the river with a strong force. When this force
THE FALL OF A PATRIOT 33
was about half way across the stream, they were fired
upon by the Americans. The current was very strong
and the British soldiers were waist deep in the water.
They stopped and would have gone back, but the offi-
cers urged them on. General O'Hara spurred his horse
into the river for the purpose of urging on his men; but
before he reached the first line his horse stumbled and
threw the General over into the water. He go-t out as
best he could, but his ardor was somewhat dampened.
Cornwallis also dashed in, but his horse was killed
while he was crossing, and he found himself afoot.
Several British soldiers, including Colonel Hall, were
killed. Those that reached the other shore charged up
the hill against the North Carolinians.
While the British were crossing, General Davidson
stood firm with his three hundred brave men. He di-
rected the fire of his men with good effect. But when
the British reached the shore he saw that it was useless
to resist longer. So he gave the order to his men to
"To the woods," said he, "and come together at Ter-
As he was in the act of mounting his horse to follow
his men, a British bullet put an end to his life.
His death was a severe blow to Greene and the
34 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
American cause. Davidson was one of the most active
patriots in North Carolina. He did much to hold the
patriots together in the dark days of the war.
The scattered soldiers came together at Terrent's
Tavern as they had been ordered. But as there was no
leader they were in a helpless condition. Tarleton and
his dragoons soon attacked them and put them to flight.
ADVENTURES OF AN AMERICAN SPY 35
ADVENTURES OF AN AMERICAN SPY
It was in February, 1781. Cornwallis had coine into
North Carolina for the purpose of destroying General
Greene's army. He was eager for battle, and so were
Greene's army was not strong enough to meet the
British in open battle. The men were so ragged and so
poorly armed that Greene kept out of the way of Corn-
wallis as best he could. But he stayed near the British
army so that he might be able to stop any plundering.
Often he would send a soldier, disguised as a coun-
tryman, into the British camp to find out what the
enemy was doing or was going to do. Such information
was very useful to General Greene. He could tell at
any time where the British army was, or where it would
be next day, and in that way he kept out of the way of
One day Greene sent a man named Jones into the
British lines to find out something for him. Jones spent
the day among the British soldiers, and found out every-
thing that he wanted. That night when he started to
leave, a sentinel ordered him to stop. He immediately
broke into a run and soon reached a little patch of
36 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
woods near the British camp. Soldiers were sent in
pursuit of him.
As the British entered the woods they saw Jones
creeping along under the bushes. They fired upon him,
but he did not stop. The British were gaining on him,
and he thought he was lost. As his only hope lay in
flight, he began to run again. He thought he might be
able to escape in the darkness.
While he was running his foot caught in a bramble
and tripped him. He now felt sure he would be shot.
But a bright idea came into his mind while he was lying
on the ground. Near him was a large, hollow log. He
crawled into it, thinking that the British would soon
pass by in pursuit, and then he could come out and go
his way. The soldiers came up near the log and stopped.
"I am not going to run that rascal any longer," said
one. "He is out of our reach by this time, anyway, and
"So am I," said another.
"Let us make a fire here and rest."
All agreed to this. To Jones's horror they gathered
brush to make the fire and piled it against the log.
Then they set fire to "the brush. Soon the log began to
burn, and Jones's hiding place became uncomfortable.
ADVENTURES OF AN AMERICAN SPY 37
What he should do he did not know. To come out
would be death. To stay in would be the same.
Just then the wind sent the smoke and flame into the
hollow log. Jones could not stand it any longer. He
began to scramble out backward. The British saw a
stir in the flames, and soon a man with blackened face
and half-burnt hair and clothes jumped out of the log.
"It's old Nick himself!" shouted one of the soldiers,
and then they all took to their heels.
Jones did not stop to inquire what they were running
for, but got away as fast as he could. It was well that
he did; for the British soldiers soon recovered from
their fear and came back to capture the spy. With
torches they began to search the woods again. But it
was too late; for Jones had gotten out of the woods
and found a hiding place in the house of a patriot some
The patriot had a daughter named Hannah. She
took Jones up-stairs, put him in a barrel, and headed it
up. Then she waited to see what would happen. All
night the family waited and listened. Just at dawn
some one knocked loudly at the door. The door was
fiercely shaken, and somebody said in a harsh voice:
"Open the door instantly, or we will break it down."
Hannah opened the door as quickly as she could, and
38 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
there were the British soldiers outside. She was not
afraid of them, and asked what they wanted.
"Where is that dog of an American spy?" asked the
leader. "I know he is here, for we have tracked him to
"I do not keep up with American spies," said the girl.
"I reckon you had better go about your business."
"I am 'about my business,' and if you don't tell
me where you have hidden him we'll tear up every-
thing in this house. We are going to find him."
The British began to search the house. After they
had searched everything downstairs, they went up-
stairs. There were several barrels in a room, in one of
which was Jones.
"Come out of that barrel," said the leader of the
British, and he rolled one of the barrels downstairs.
That was the one Jones was ir . The head burst out as
it was going down, and the spy jumped up and seized a
"Come on, my men!" he shouted. "We have them at
The British thought there were other Americans
around, and fled with all speed. Jones made his way as
fast as he could to the army of General Greene, and the
British soldiers went back to their army.
DEATII OP THE BUGLER BOY 39
DEATH OF THE BUGLER BOY
After the battle of Cowpens, General Morgan re'
treated to the Yadkin river and joined General Greene
there. The two armies then marched northward,
as Cornwallis was coming. Greene thought that he was
not strong enough yet to risk a battle, and retreated
toward Virginia. The cavalry, under Colonel Williams,
remained behind to protect the infantry that went be-
Lieutenant-Colonel Lee was the most active officer in
the cavalry division. He was General Greene's most
trusted man. Colonel Williams gave him very impor-
tant duties to perform in this retreat. He had to guard
the rear, and that brought him often into conflict with
In Colonel Lee's command was a bugler boy named
Gillies. He was hardly more than fifteen years of age,
but had volunteered to do service for the American
cause. There was not an officer or man in Lee's com-
mand that did not know Gillies. He was a general fa-
vorite. Colonel Lee kept him near himself all the time.
He was a trusted friend as well as a comrade in arms.
Lee often sent him upon errands and always found that
40 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
he did his duty. On this retreat Gillies was particularly
One morning in February, 1781, the cavalry had made
an early march, and had stopped about 9 o'clock near
Guilford courthouse to cook breakfast. The fires had
been made; the meat was broiling on the coals; the
cornbread was in the ashes; the soldiers were lounging
ground waiting for the food to cook. Just then the
sound of hoofs was heard, and every man made ready
to mount at the signal. Then a countryman was seen
riding up the road in a great hurry and excitement.
He was hailed and stopped.
"Where's the general?" asked the countryman; "I
have some news for him."
He was conducted to Colonel Williams, who asked
him what his errand was.
"Lord Cornwall is is right behind you, general," he
said. "I saw his army not half an hour ago coming up
the road this way. They are not three miles away."
Colonel Williams knew that Cornwallis was coming,
but he did not know that he was so near. But as he
could not doubt the honest farmer's word, he ordered
Colonel Lee to send a small force down the road to see
if the report was correct. Captain Armstrong with a
few horsemen and the countryman went a mile in that
DEATH OF THE BUGLER BOY 41
direction, but saw nothing. Colonel Lee, Gillies and a
few others followed and soon overtook them. They
went on together for two miles, but did not see or hear
Lee was about to conclude that the countryman was
mistaken. But the man protested that they were only
a short distance farther on. Colonel Lee decided that
he would return to breakfast. He told Captain Arm-
strong to go on with the countryman until he came to
the place where the British had been seen.
Captain Armstrong selected the men that were to ac-
company him, and was moving on when the country-
man stopped and said that he could not go on unless he
was furnished with a better horse. "For," said he, "if I
should be captured it would go hard with me." Lee
saw that the farmer was right. He told Gillies to give
his horse to the countryman and to take the country-
man's horse back to camp. The exchange was made
and the two parties separated, one going on to meet the
British and the other going back to breakfast.
Instead of returning to camp, however, Lee led his
dragoons off from the road and halted in the woods to
see what might take place. The bugler boy rode on
toward the camp. He rode slowly, for the country-
man's horse was lame. Presently a rattle of musketry
42 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
was heard, and then the noise of horses running. Lee
concluded that Armstrong had found the enemy and
was retreating. Sure enough, Armstrong and his com-
pany, followed by some of Tarleton's dragoons, soon
came in sight. The American horses were swifter than
the British, and Lee was certain that the Americans
could take care of themselves. But he was afraid for
the safety of the bugler boy, who was mounted on the
countryman's horse. So when the dragoons dashed by
him in pursuit of Armstrong, Lee ordered his men to
go in pursuit of the dragoons. He came up in time to
see the British horsemen sabre Gillies and beat him to
the ground. This angered Lee and his men.
"See those cowards," said he, "murdering a defense-
less boy. Soldiers, let not one of the villains escape."
The British saw him coming, and turned to meet him.
The Americans halted not, but bore down with all their
might upon the enemy. Great was the shock, and most
of the British were knocked from their horses and
killed. Captain Miller and two or three of his men
tried to escape, but Lee ordered Lieutenant Lewis to go
in pursuit and give no quarter. Lewis soon returned
with Miller as a prisoner. Lee ordered him to be shot
for the murder of the bugler boy; but Miller denied that
DEATH OF THE BUGLER BOY 43
he had anything to do with it, and said that his men
were drunk and did not know what they were doing.
Lee went to where Gillies was lying. The poor boy
was not dead, but life was fast going from him.
"My poor boy/' said Lee, "you are badly hurt, but
those cowardly rascals have already been punished."
"Did their captain get away?" Gillies asked with
great effort. "He was the one who struck me first with
That was enough. Lee went back and ordered the
British captain to prepare for instant death. He begged
for his life in vain. But just as those who were ap-
pointed to execute him were leading him off, some one
shouted that Tarleton's cavalry was coming. The
Americans hurried on to camp and joined the main
army. The British captain was turned over to Colonel
Williams, who sent him on to a prison in Virginia. And
so it happened that he was never punished for the kill-
ing of the bugler boy.
Gillies died in a few minutes after the advance of the
British was seen, and his body was placed by the road-
side. There is a monument to him on the Guilford bat-
tle-ground near Greensboro.
44 NOETH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
HOW COLONEL PYLE SAVED TARLETON
Ccrnwallis tried to catch Greene's army, but he did
not succeed. General Greene kept going until he
crossed the Dan river into Virginia. Then Cornwallis
went to Hillsboro and encamped.
From this place he sent word to the people of North
Carolina that he had come as a friend, and that he ex-
pected them to be true subjects of the king. As there
was no American army in North Carolina to keep the
Tories in check, they began to flock to the standard of
the British general.
Greene, who was resting at Halifax, Virginia, heard
of what was going on in North Carolina, and made up
his mind that he would try to put a stop to it. He sent
Colonel Lee and General Pickens, with a small force,
into North Carolina. He told them to keep a close
watch on the Tories, and, if possible, keep them from
joining the British.
Soon after crossing the Dan river, these two officers
learned that Colonel Tarlton, with his dragoons, was
just ahead of them and was going toward Guilford
courthouse to rouse the Tories in that neighborhood.
Colonel Lee thought that it would be a good time to
HOW COLONEL PYLE SAVED TARLETON 45
attack Tarleton and, if possible, drive him from North
Carolina. With that in view they proceeded in the
direction of the British camp. On the way they met a
countryman, who told them that Tarleton and his dra-
goons were about three miles ahead.
"They have halted at the farm of a neighbor of mine,"
said the countryman. "They are much given to liquor
and their horses are unsaddled."
Lee saw that his opportunity was at hand. He hur-
ried on in order to reach the place before the British
should finish their dinner. When they arrived at the
farm, however, all the British were gone except two,
who were left behind to settle with the farmer. These
two were captured. From them it was learned that
Tarleton had gone on about six miles farther to encamp
for the night.
Lee then thought that it would be best for his men
to pass through the country as British soldiers coming
from Hillsboro to the aid of Colonel Tarleton. He in-
formed all his officers and men of what he was doing,
and told them to act the part of British soldiers. He
gave the two prisoners into the hands of a sergeant,
who was instructed to kill them instantly if they should
try to betray the Americans. Thus having arranged
40 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
matters, the little army marched on toward Tarleton's
In a little while they met two well-mounted young
countrymen. These young men rode up and asked to
see the colonel. They were deceived. They thought
that the Americans were British, and that the com-
mander was Tarleton himself. They were led to Colonel
Lee, whom they saluted with respect.
"We have come from Colonel Pyle," said one of them,
"who has four hundred brave North Carolinians ready
to join your command to fight for the cause of the king.
He wishes to know how he may unite his force with
Lee saw that the countrymen had made a mistake in
thinking that he was Tarleton. He decided to turn the
matter to advantage. He told one of the men to return
to Colonel Pyle and tell him to draw up his men along
the roadside and await his coming. The other man re-
mained with Lee.
Colonel Pyle did as he was requested. Lee came up
with his command and halted. Then he marched his
dragoons along the line of Colonel Pyle's command.
Lee was at the head of the line. When he came to where
Colonel Pyle was he stopped, and that officer gave the
military salute. Lee returned the salute.
HOW COLONEL PYLE SAVED TARLETON 47
"Colonel Tarleton," said Pyle, addressing Colonel
Lee by mistake, "you see before you four hundred as
brave subjects of the king as are to be found anywhere.
They have become tired of seeing their countrymen in
arms against their sovereign. So they have resolved to
join you in breaking down the rebellion."
"Colonel Pyle," said Lee, "you are mistaken in the
man and the meeting. Be easy and listen to me. I am
Lieutenant-Colonel Lee." At this Pyle gave a start and
partly drew his sword.
"You must be easy," said Lee. "Your life is not
worth a baubee if you make any movement at all. My
men have orders to shoot you down if you do not com-
ply with my orders."
Just at that time a heavy firing was heard down the
road. Some of Pyle's men had seen General Pickens's
militia in the woods and fired upon them. The Ameri-
cans returned the fire, and Lee's dragoons, thinking
that they were discovered, began to cut down the men
in their front. Pyle tried to lead his men against Lee,
but the dragoons were too fast for him. In less than
fifteen minutes Pyle himself was cut down and left for
dead, while ninety of his command had been killed.
The others scattered in every direction,, and succeeded
in getting away, as they were not pursued.
48 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
After this Lee hurried on to attack Tarleton. It was
nearly sundown when he came within a mile of the
British. lie wanted to make the attack at once, but it
was thought best to wait until morning. So the Ameri-
cans slept with their arms near them. About the mid-
dle of the night Tarleton broke camp and hurried back
to Hillsboro to rejoin Cornwallis. Lee and Pickens pur-
sued him, but could not get near enough to give battle
So Colonel Pyle probably saved Tarleton from cap-
ture. Lee was expecting to meet a British colonel, but
met an American colonel instead.
"He dashed down the rock at lighting speed into the river.'
Page 32, Book V.
North Carolina History Stories
THE MINUTE MEN OF THE HILLS
During the Revolutionary War there was an organi-
zation in western North Carolina known as "Minute
Men." It was made up of the patriots who could not
leave their homes permanently to join the regular army,
but were ready to fight at a minute's notice whenever
the British came into North Carolina.
These men lived among the mountains and loved
their freedom. Some of them had rifles and swords,
but most of them had only the fowling pieces they used
on their hunting trips in the mountains. But they
knew how to use these weapons with telling effect.
They were thoroughly organized and ready to respond
to the call to arms, no matter when it should come.
They answered when they were called to fight Ferguson
at King's Mountain and the Tories at Ramseur's Mill.
At each place they answered with a powerful blow,
which struck down the enemy.
10 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
When Cornwallis came into North Carolina in Feb-
ruary, 1781, word was quickly sent up to the hill coun
try that an enemy was at their doors. This news pro-
duced a stir in the mountain coves. Messengers were
sent here and there. Lights shone from the mountains.
The air was full of hurry and preparation.
Soon the tramp of feet told that the minute men were
assembling. Out from the coves and valleys they came
to join together to drive the enemy from their doors.
They traveled over the mountains looking for a chance
to strike the British. When they reached Salem it was
learned that Greene had retreated and was then in Vir-
ginia. Cornwallis was at Hillsboro. But soon it was
known that General Greene was going to return and
give battle to Cornwallis. This news raised the spirits
of the minute men.
For some days they waited to see what would be
done. Then a messenger from Greene came through
the country telling the news everywhere: "General
Greene has recrossed the Dan with a large army, and
he expects every patriot to meet him at Guilford court-
house early in March." It was then near the last of
February. The minute men set out for the appointed
place. They aroused the country as they went. Hun-
dreds of men joined them as they proceeded, and when
THE MINUTE MEN OF THE HILLS 11
they reached Greene's camp the strength of his army
was very much increased.
General Greene now thought himself strong enough
to meet Cornwallis in battle. He therefore prepared
himself and waited for the British to come up. The
North Carolina minute men were placed in front. They
were ordered to fire upon the British and then fall back
to the next line.
Presently Cornwallis and his army came in sight.
With colors flying and drums beating they marched up
the road toward the minute men. It was a beautiful
sight. The minute men had never seen anything like it
before. They had fought Indians and had chased the
bear in the mountains, but they had never seen war in
such colors as this. But they stood their ground until
the British were in good range. Then they fired with
deadly effect, and retreated as they had been ordered to
do. They ran from the field with much haste, and gave
the appearance of a flight. They re-formed behind the
other lines and joined in the battle later.
When the. minute men fled the British shouted, think-
ing that the battle was already won. They found that
they were badly mistaken, for when they met th* regu-
lar troops their forward march was checked. Tarleton
with his dragoons was ordered to drive the Americana
12 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
back, but he found Greene and Lee ready to pounce
While the battle was in doubt, General Greene or-
dered his men to retreat. Then it was that the minute
men of the hills came in for some real service. Tarle-
ton's dragoons began to pursue them. They turned
round and poured in a deadly fire upon the dragoons
and checked their advance.
The minute men carried their bullets in their mouths
for convenience. As quick as a flash they would fire
and reload. Every time a rifle was fired a British sol-
dier fell from his horse or a horse tumbled in his tracks.
Tarleton thought that he had better wait until the
minute men had left the field before he went any far-
ther. So he halted and they went on.
In this battle the British lost about six hundred men
and the Americans about four hundred. The men from
the mountains did good service, as did the other North
Carolina soldiers. The minute men remained in
Greene's army until Cornwallis was driven from North
Carolina. Then they went back to their homes to raise
their crops and to look after their stock.
COENWALLIS ON THE RUN 13
CORNWALLIS ON THE RUN
After the battle of Guilford courthouse, Cornwallis
Sent word home that he had gained a great victory. He
also sent out notices to the people that he had finished
the conquest of North Carolina, and would expect all of
them to aid him in establishing peace. He was sur-
prised that they did not come to his camp to congratu-
late him upon his victory. He began to feel a little
uneasy; and presently he began to think that he had
won no victory at all.
In a day or two he heard that General Greene was
getting ready to attack him. Greene was not whipped
at all, but had made a strong camp on Troublesome
creek. He was hoping that Cornwallis would attack
him there, but the British general had another matter
to attend to. He was anxious to get away from the
neighborhood of Greene and the North Carolina min-
ute men. With this object in view he ordered his army
to begin to move towards Wilmington. This was three
days after his "great victory" at Guilford courthouse.
No sooner had the British army broken camp than
the Americans began to close in upon them. Lee's
legion hung on the rear, and again and again made at-
14 NOKTH CAROLINA HISTOKY STOKIES
tacks upon the British. His horsemen would gallop up
to the rear line of the enemy, discharge their rifles,
and dash away before Tarleton could organize a pur-
suit. Colonel William Washington was also with
Greene's army, and his men helped in these attacks.
They were mounted on large, blooded horses, while
Tarleton's men had only small ponies. The British
dragoon was therefore no match for the American.
One day it was learned that the British army would
soon pass along a road that had a high fence on each
side. Colonel Washington said to Lee that it would be
an excellent place to destroy Tarleton's cavalry.
"If we attack them there, Tarleton will have to pro-
tect the rear, and we can ride him down," said Wash-
This was an excellent plan. When the British dra-
goons had gotten well into the lane, Lee sounded the
signal for attack, and the big horses of the Americans
ran like the wind down the lane toward the British.
Tarleton saw them coming, and turned around to receive
the attack. His little horses could not stand the shock.
Every one that the Americans reached was knocked
down and rolled in the mud. The riders were killed
and the ponies ridden over. Tarleton himself came near
going down in the charge. He saved himself by putting
'CORNWALLIS ON THE RUN 15
spurs to his pony at the first shock and galloping out of
range. Just then a British cannon was rolled into posi-
tion and began to fire straight down the lane. Lee gave
the signal for retreat, and drew off without losing a
single man or horse.
Cornwallis hurried on to Cross creek, which was set-
tled by Scotch Highlanders who were friendly to the
British cause. There he hoped to get out of the way of
the Americans and have time for rest. Before he
could reach that settlement Deep river had to be
crossed, and there was no ford. So he had to build a
bridge. Greene had halted his army on account of the
scarcity of provisions, but had sent Lee and his dra-
goons to watch the British and annoy them in every
possible way. Lee delayed Cornwallis as much as he
could. He kept dashing up with a great deal of noise
to where the carpenters were at work upon the bridge,
scaring and confusing them. Then he was off almost in
a minute's time.
One night, when the bridge was nearly finished, and
the British army was expecting to march over it the
next morning, Lee thought he would destroy it. If he
could do so, it would cause Cornwallis to have to wait
until it could be rebuilt; and then Greene would be
there to attack him, and the whole British army might
16 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
be captured. He chose two hundred men from his
legion to do this work. At their head he rode ten miles
around the British army and came into the neighbor-
hood of the bridge late at night. He was greatly dis-
appointed to find that Cornwallis had placed a guard at
the bridge too large for him to think of attacking. With
regret he had to retreat to his former position.
Next day the whole British army crossed over and
came into the settlement of the Highlanders. Lee did
not think it wise to follow them farther. So he waited
until General Greene arrived. It was then decided to
let Cornwallis alone and drive the British out of South
Cornwallis went to Wilmington. He remained there
for some time. Then he went north into Virginia, and
soon reached Yorktown.
A STRANGE NIGHT ATTACK 17
A STRANGE NIGHT ATTACK
After Cornwallis had worn himself out whipping
General Greene at Guilford courthouse, he retreated to
Wilmington. He was afraid to meet the Americans in
another battle. So he shut himself up in that city, and
would not come out again.
General Greene decided to march into South Caro-
lina and attack the British there. Before he went he
serit Colonel Harry Lee with his horsemen to South
Carolina to let the people know that he was coming.
Lee was also to find General Marion, the "Swamp Fox,"
as he was called, and tell him to collect as many men as
possible by the time Greene should arrive.
"Light Horse Harry," as Colonel Lee was called, was
the very man to do this work. With his dragoons he
set out from Greensboro on his long march through the
forests of North Carolina. He was a brave man, and
did not mind the dangers that surrounded him. His
horseme'n also were brave. They scoured the country
as they passed through, looking for British and Tories.
There were no British to be found; and if there were
any Tories around they were afraid to let it be known
when Lee's men were near.
18 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
One night something happened which they remem-
bered for a long time afterwards. They had halted and
made their camp in a large forest. As usual, Colonel
Lee had placed pickets all around his camp to give the
alarm if an enemy should attack. Then they all retired
for the night and slept soundly after a long day's march.
Late at night the soldiers on guard on the south side of
the camp heard a great tramping of feet in the brush
just in front of them. They thought that the British
were making an attack upon them, and fired in that
direction. Then they heard a galloping through the
forest as if the enemy was running.
One of the men ran as fast as he could to Colonel
Lee's tent. The colonel was already up, for he had
heard the firing.
"What's the matter?" asked Lee. "Is the enemy
about to attack us?"
"Yes, sir," said the soldier saluting, "a squadron of
the enemy attacked us in front a short while ago, but
we beat them off with loss. They are now in full re-
Colonel Lee ordered the men to be aroused from sleep
and to prepare for battle. He expected. the enemy to
return. He exhorted his men to stand firm and to strike
hard when the British appeared. Just then the pickets
A STKANGE NIGHT ATTACK 19
on the east side began to fire their guns. Lee ordered
his men to face in that direction, expecting the enemy
to attack in force. But the firing ceased. Soon a sol
dier came running into camp from the east side.
"Where is the enemy?" asked Lee.
"I have to report, sir," said the man, "that the enemy
attacked us vigorously, but the good aim of our men has
driven them off."
"Let every man be ready to charge at a moment's no-
tice," said Lee.
Before he finished speaking a sharp firing was heard
on the north side of the camp. Lee felt sure the attack
was coming now, but it did not come. He did not know
what to think, and the men were puzzled. They were
not cowards, but they were greatly disturbed by the
strange behavior of the enemy. Presently a messenger
came in from the picket line on the north side and re-
ported that the enemy had made an attack there, but
had retreated at the first fire, and was retiring north-
ward. This was a very strange thing for an enemy to
be doing. But Lee held his men in line of battle all
night, ready to repel any attack that might come.
When daylight came they looked for the British, but
not a redcoat could be seen anywhere. If they had
been there during the night they were gone now. There
20 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
was no sign of them anywhere. It was a great mystery.
After a whilethey found the tracks of many wolves all
going in the same direction toward the north. Then
the mystery was understood. Not far off was an old
building where meats and other supplies for the sol-
diers had been placed. The wolves had found this out
and had gone there in a large pack.
Having satisfied their appetites, the wolves were re-
turning when they ran into the pickets of Lee's men on
the south. Fired upon by these they turned to the right
and ran through the woods. Trying to get back to the
road, they ran into the pickets again and were fired
upon. Scampering off again they continued their flight
and were fired upon the third time on the north side.
When the truth became known a broad smile was
seen on the faces of the soldiers, and for a long time it
was a joke upon the pickets that they could not tell a
pack of wolves from the British army.
A BRAVE WOMAN'S WIT 2l
A BRAVE WOMAN'S WIT
When Cornwallis left Wilmington in April, 1781, he
went straight to Virginia, after stopping at Halifax for
a few days to give his men rest. While there his famous
cavalry leader, Colonel Tarleton, received a worse de-
feat than the one he got at the Cowpens.
Cornwallis was hurrying to Virginia to keep Wash-
ington from capturing New York. There was no Ameri-
can army to oppose him. General Lillington, a North
Carolina patriot, had a small army, but he could not
stand against the British. So he followed along be-
hind, and sometimes he would attack the rear line with
a great deal of vigor. In that way he kept the British
worried. He sometimes took a few prisoners and de-
stroyed some of the enemy's wagons.
About the first of May the British came to Halifax.
There was only a small North Carolina force under
Governor Nash to guard the town. These did not wait
to welcome Cornwallis, but got out of the way as best
they could. The British went in and took possession of
Some of the British officers put on many airs, and
walked the streets with high heads as if they owned the
22 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
town. They made fun of the people, and spoke with
contempt of the American army and of General Wash-
ington and the other officers. The people took all these
ugly words without saying much, because they knew
that it would do no good to get angry. There were so
many British that it would be foolish to provoke them.
There were in Halifax, however, two ladies who were
not afraid to express their opinions. These were Mrs.
Wiley Jones and her sister, Mrs. Ashe. These ladies
lived in an elegant mansion near town. They were as
patriotic as their husbands and friends who were then
in the American army fighting for liberty. One day
General Leslie, Colonel Tarleton and some other British
officers went to Mrs. Jones's house to call upon the
ladies. Mrs. Jones did not want to see them at all, but
she thought it would be rude to refuse to receive them.
So she and Mrs. Ashe went down to the parlor and there
found the officers, who were very polite and bowed low
and spoke kindly. Very soon the talk drifted to the
war, and a British officer made a slighting remark
about the American army and the officers.
"The American generals know nothing about war,"
said he. "None of them ever had any military training."
"They have at least learned some things on the battle-
field," said Mrs. Jones. "They are very good matches
A BRAVE WOMAN'S WIT 23
for the trained soldiers in the British army. For my
part I think you might learn some things from them."
"They are indeed good soldiers," said General Leslie,
"and if they had had the training that our people have
had the war would soon end in their favor."
"Mrs. Jones," said Colonel Tarleton, "are you ac-
quainted with Colonel William Washington? I have
heard him spoken of so often that I should be glad to
"You should have looked behind you at the battle of
the Cowpens," said Mrs. Ashe, "and you would have
had that pleasure. Colonel Washington does not hide
himself, nor does he run away from an enemy."
This reply made Tarleton very angry, for he remem-
bered well that a handsome young American had
wounded him in the hand in that battle and made him
run. But he did not know that it was William Wash-
"I did not come here to be insulted," said he. "I did
not run because I was afraid, but to save my troops.
He is no soldier. I am told that he is an ignorant boor
and cannot write his name."
"At any rate, Colonel Tarleton, he knows how to
make his mark," said Mrs. Jones, "for the signs are still
24 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
plain." She said thi while looking at his wounded
Tarleton became furious, and swore that he would
kill Washington if he had to spend the remainder of his
days in hunting him down.
"He shall not escape me, the impudent cur, to lie
upon me that way. I'll have his blood or die in the at-
tempt. These despised Americans shall learn not to
speak disrespectfully of their betters."
Thus the fierce Briton went on in his rage, saying all
sorts of ugly things, until General Leslie ordered him
to stop. Soon they went away, and the two ladies were
glad of it. The fair patriots had met the enemv and
had defeated them in a war of words.
Not long after that Cornwallis left Halifax and went
on to Virginia.' Tarleton was still sore over his defeat.
He never saw Colonel Washington to carry out his
threat, for shortly after reaching Virginia Cornwallis
had to surrender at Yorktown with his whole army.
Tarleton went back to England, and never returned to
THE TORY BANDIT 25
THE TORY BANDIT
There was a man living in North Carolina during the
Revolution named David Fanning. He was a very cruel
man, and took delight in bringing troubles on his neigh
bors. He joined the British against his country, and
did all he could to destroy the American army. Corn-
wallis appointed him as a leader of the Tories in North
Carolina. This was in the spring of 1781. Soon he had
four or five hundred men who went about with him,
killing people and robbing their neighbors of horses
and money. He was quite a daring fellow. Sometimes
he did some very remarkable things.
At one time court was in session at Chatham court-
house. The lawyers were talking law to the jury, and
the judge was sitting on the bench. Suddenly David
Fanning, at the head of forty Tories, rushed into the
courthouse and made the whole court prisoners. He
hurried them off to Wilmington,which was in the hands
of the British. Then he and his men went off to find
other things to do. He was never idle, and he hardly
allowed his men to sleep. Everybody was afraid that
Fanning would come upon them unawares; and no one
ever knew when to expect him.
26 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
There was one man in Chatham county that Fanning
hated. This was Colonel Philip Alston. Once Fanning
had been out upon one of his exploits and had met with
Colonel Alston and a company of patriots. Fanning
was beaten, and had to run as fast as he could to get
out of the way of Colonel Alston. This wounded Fan-
ning's pride, and he made up his mind that he would
get even with Alston.
About the first of August, 1781, Fanning heard that
Colonel Alston was at home with a small company of
soldiers. He thought it would be a good time to cap-
ture him. He took twenty-four men and set out for
Colonel Alston's house. It was Sunday morning when
they reached there. Alston had placed sentinels around
the house. These had been on the watch for a long
time, and had gotten somewhat careless. Suddenly
Fanning rode up and captured some of the sentinels
before they could get into the house. The others es-
caped. Then Colonel Alston saw that his house was
surrounded by the soldiers of his enemy.
There was much excitement in the house. Mrs.
Alston put the children up the brick chimneys to pro-
tect them from the shots; then she got into the bed and
covered up, head and ears. Colonel Alston and his men
shot from the windows and doors. Fanning and his
THE TORY BANDIT
men got behind fences and trees and shot at the house
as best they could. The fight was kept up for some time.
After a while Fanning told Lieutenant McKay, one of
his officers, to run to the house with some men and
burst open the doors. McKay jumped over the fence to
do so, but was shot dead. The other men dodged be-
hind the fence. They could not stand the hot fire. Then
a negro ran up on the other side of the house to set it
on fire, but he was shot down also.
Late in the day Colonel Fanning thought of a sharp
trick. There was an ox cart standing out in the lot. He
filled this with hay as a protection against bullets. His
men were to push this cart ahead of them to Colonel
Alston's house and burst down the door, or set the
hay on fire, which would burn the house down.
Colonel Alston saw what they were doing and knew
that he could not defend the house much longer. He
told Mrs. Alston that the fight was about over, and that
they would have to surrender. Mrs. Alston jumped out
of bed, unbarred the door and held out a white flag.
Fanning stopped firing and called out to her to meet
him half way. She went out into the yard and Fanning
came out from behind the hay.
"We will surrender, sir," said she. "if you will grant
us favorable terms."
28 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
"What terms do you want, madam?" said Fanning.
"That none of us shall be injured or sent out of the
country," was the reply.
"And what if I do not give those terms?"
"Then we continue the fight," answered the brave
woman. "There are but a few of us, but each man will
bring down a Tory before the end is reached."
Colonel Fanning was struck with this brave answer,
and immediately granted the terms asked for. He had
Colonel Alston in his power, but he was bound by his
promise to Mrs. Alston that none of them should be
harmed. So he paroled all the prisoners and allowed
them to go home in safety.
Shortly after this event Fanning, at the head of his
Tories, marched into Hillsboro and captured Governor
Burke and all the State officers. These were sent to
Wilmington and kept in prison for a long time.
Fanning continued to be a terror to the people of
North Carolina until after the close of the war. He was
hated by all the patriots. He murdered many men and
women, and finally, after the war, fled to Canada, wb-ere
he passed the remainder of his life, an exile and an
HUNTER'S STONE STEPS 29
HUNTER'S STONE STEPS
Colonel William Hunter was one of the patriots who
kept David Fanning busy in the summer and fall of
1781. His home was near Sandy Creek Church, in Ran-
dolph county. He was a strong patriot, and did all he
could to gain the independence of his country.
Before the Revolution he was a regulator, and was
in the battle of Alamance. When the war began he
joined General Washington's army and served under
him during the first years of the war. When the fight-
ing was over in the north he came back to North Caro-
lina to help his people against their enemies. He found
the State overrun by the British and Tories. Cornwallis
had marched through the State three times. Fanning
and his Tories were laying waste the country and mur-
dering the people.
Colonel Hunter went about the country raising a
force of men to put a check on the Tories. He soon had
a small body of men to follow him. Fanning was doing
some ugly things in Chatham county, so Hunter went
in search of the famous Tory. Fanning had over a hun-
dred men with him. Hunter had less than twenty. He
did not know that Fanning had so many; but Hunter
30 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
was just as brave with twenty as he would have been
with a thousand. He had no thought of running away
from the Tory. When Fanning attacked, Hunter held
his ground and fought bravely. Four of his men were
killed and several wounded. Many of Fanning's men
were killed also. "After holding his ground for some
time, Hunter saw that his men were surrounded and
could not escape. So he surrendered on condition that
their lives should be spared. Fanning was glad enough
to agree to this, for his men were falling every time
Colonel Hunter's men fired their guns.
Fanning then set out for Hillsboro with his prisoners.
While on the way Colonel Hunter saw a good chance
to escape, and made use of it. Quick as a flash he made
a dash for the woods and hid under a rock, while the
Tories were searching for him in the forest. He lay
quite still until dark. Then he crept out and made his
way to a farmer's house. The farmer promised to help
him get away from the Tories, for they were still look-
ing for him. Hunter knew that if he could get to Chat-
ham courthouse he would be safe; for he had friends
there. The important thing was to pass the Tories who
were guarding the roads. He asked the farmer to take
him in his wagon as a bag of grain. The farmer put him
in the wagon, piled bags of grain around him, and set
HTJNTEB'S STONE STEPS 31
out for the mill. But he had not gone far before he
was stopped by Fanning and his men.
"Where is the rebel, my friend?" asked Fanning. "He
went to your house last night, I have been told."
"I do not try to keep up with the rebels," answered
the farmer. "I am on my way to mill, and I shall be
obliged if you will let me pass."
"Not so fast," was the answer. "We need some corn
for our horses, and shall have to ask you to divide with
Colonel Hunter heard what was said, and knew that
he was caught. But he lay quite still until one of Fan-
ning's men came to lift out the bags. When he got
hold of the bag that Hunter was in he knew that it was
not corn. So he called for help and soon rolled Colonel
Hunter out of the wagon. Colonel Fanning was over-
joyed to see his enemy in his hands again.
"I am very glad to see you, Colonel Hunter," he said.
"How did you pass the night? You look tired. You
shall be hanged at once."
He gave the order for Hunter to be hanged to the
nearest tree. His men were getting ready to put the
rope around the prisoner's neck, when Hunter, with
the activity of a cat, leaped upon Colonel Fanning's
horse, that was standing near, and sped away like the
wind. Fanning fired several shots at the horse and
rider as they dashed up the road.
Fanning leaped upon another horse and went in hot
pursuit, followed by his dragoons. It was then a race
to Deep river. Hunter had the start, and was mounted
on Fanning's favorite horse. He reached the river some
distance ahead of his pursuers, but there was no ford
near. Just before him was a large slanting rock rising
out of the water. This was too steep even for a man to
run down. But Hunter dug his heels into the flanks
of Fanning's horse and dashed down the rock at light-
ning speed into tne river. The horse swam the river,
reaching the other side just as Fanning and his men
came up to the banks. They dared not follow him.
Colonel Hunter stopped a moment on the shore,
shook his fist at Fanning and rode away. He kept the
horse as a trophy of his exploit. Hunter's escape was
always a sore subject with Fanning. He became angry
whenever anyone referred to how he lost his favorite
THE STATE OF FRANKLIN
THE STATE OF FRANKLIN
Soon after the Revolution some of the people in the
mountains became dissatisfied with the North Carolina
government, and tried to form a State government of
their own. Tennessee was then a part of North Caro-
These people became angry because the State legis-
lature gave all the country west of the Great Smoky
mountains to the United States government. They
said the State had no right to take such action. So they
declared themselves free, and called a convention to
meet at Jonesboro to write a constitution.
All that country had been settled by hunters and
trappers, who, like Daniel Boone, wanted "elbow
room." They had come from eastern and central North
Carolina, and were looking for better hunting grounds.
Colonel John Sevier, one of the rough riders who had
whipped the British at King's Mountain, was the best
known man among them.
"What right," said he, "has the legislature to trade
us off? We are not cattle. We are free men and helped
to drive the British from this land. We have a right to
34 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
say how we shall be governed. I say we should be a
State to ourselves."
Most of the people agreed with him. They met in
Jonesboro to begin a new State. But the delegates
were all bear hunters and Indian fighters, and they
knew more about hunting than they did about law-
making. -They could not agree on anything. Every
man had his opinion, and had little respect for the opin-
ion of any other. So they talked and disagreed with
each other, and made no constitution. Finally they
adjourned without accomplishing anything.
Next year they met again. This time they were not
so noisy. They knew better what to do. Soon they had
the constitution written, and went home. Colonel
Sevier was elected governor.
As there were no gold or silver coins in the State, one
of the things the legislature had to do was to make
some money to carry on trade. It was agreed that the
skins of animals should pass as money. One raccoon
skin passed for one shilling and three pence, one beaver
skin for six shillings, and one deer or otter skin for six
shillings. That kind of money was very convenient for
the hunters and trappers of the new State. Anyone
could get it, as game was plentiful. Whenever a man
needed money all he had to do was to take his gun and
THE STATE OF FRANKLIN 35
dogs, go to the woods and shoot it from the trees or
capture it in the chase. So it happened that there was
always plenty of money in the land.
When Governor Caswell, of North Carolina, learned
what Colonel Sevier and his people had done, he sent a
message to Sevier that he had better stop trying to be
governor. Sevier would not agree to this, as he thought
himself to be as much a governor as Caswell was. Then
Governor Caswell sent a detachment of soldiers under
Colonel Tipton to settle the matter. Sevier was so in-
dependent that Colonel Tipton declared that he would
break up Colonel Sevier's government. He heard one
day that court was being held at Jonesboro. He and
his soldiers went there and marched into the court-
house. They upset the tables and the chairs, seized the
court records and turned the judge and jury into the
street. When Governor Sevier heard of it he collected
his soldiers and went hunting for Colonel Tipton. He
attacked Colonel Tipton's house and burst open the
doors. Tipton was away. Sevier took the court records
and carried them off in triumph. No blood was shed.
Soon afterward Colonel Tipton made an attack upon
Governor Sevier's house and found him absent. He
went in and found the records which had been taken
from him, and carried them away with him. Again
36 NORTH CAKOLLNA HISTOJJY STOKIES
Sevier led forth his soldiers to battle. They went 'to
Colonel Tipton's house, but found that he was gone.
The court records were again taken, and were hidden
in a cave. And so the fight raged. It was a war in
which one side always attacked the other in its absence
and no one was hurt. Colonel Tipton and Governor
Sevier were both brave men, but they did not happen
Finally, in 1788, Governor Sevier was at home one
day when Colonel Tipton called. Sevier was captured
and carried to Morganton. There he was put in prison
and kept for some time. After a while he was turned
loose because he had been such a brave patriot in the
With Sevier's capture the State of Franklin fell, for
he was the leader of the movement. In a few years all
that part of the country was organized as the State of
Tennessee, and the people elected him as the first gover-
nor. After his term as governor was out, he was elected
to the United States Senate, and served his State well.
He was a brave man, and did much for his country and
for the State of Tennessee.
STORY OF BATH
STORY OF BATH
Near the mouth of the Pamlico river in Beaufort
county is a little town called Bath. It was settled in
1705, and is the oldest town in North Carolina. About
four hundred people live there now, but many years ago
it was much larger.
In colonial times it was a place of much importance.
Some of the leading men of the colony lived there, and
many interesting things happened in or near it. The
famous Blackbeard had his home near Bath for some
years before he began his piracy on the Atlantic coast.
He had many hiding places in the neighborhood, and,
it is said, concealed much of his stolen treasure there.
One day, in 1718, the people of the town were very
much excited over a piece of news that had just been
received. A man had come from Jamestown, Virginia,
and had brought the tidings that a war vessel had been
sent from the Chesapeake Bay to capture Blackbeard.
Lieutenant Maynard was in command of the vessel. It
was expected to reach Pamlico sound that very day,
and every one was expecting to hear the roar of battle.
People were walking about the streets and talking in
an excited manner. "Will Maynard be strong enough
38 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
to capture the pirate?" was the question aske.d. No one
could answer, but many were fearful that the fight
would be won by Blackbeard.
"If the pirate beats in this battle," said a citizen,
"then the trade of Bath is ruined. We will be in his
hands for all time. He has already cut us almost en-
tirely off from the world."
"That is so," said another. "If Maynard fails, then
we might as well move away from this place and begin
"Blackbeard is a terrible enemy," added another,
"and dreadful will be the fate of Maynard if he falls
into the hands of the pirates."
Just then the boom of a cannon was heard far down
the river. Then another and another followed. People
became wild with excitement. They were oing hither
"That's the beginning of the battle," was heard on all
sides. "Pray God that the right may win!"
For some time the roar of the cannon was kept up.
Then the booming was less frequent, and finally ceased
altogether. All felt that the battle was being fought
out on the deck of one of the vessels, and there was
greater anxiety than before. All were anxious to know
the result of the fight. Hour after hour passed and no
STOEY OF BATH
tidings came. Men began to feel sure that Maynard
had been beaten and his vessel destroyed.
"Surely Maynard will come here if he has been suc-
cessful," all said. But the day was growing old and he
had not come. Men and boys, in their anxiety, had
gone far down the river to catch'the first glimpse of a
coming vessel. But time passed and no boat came.
Suddenly a vessel was seen coming up the river with
all sails set. When it came near enough to be seen
plainly, it was found to be a war vessel, and it was not
Blackbeard's. It came up and anchored in the harbor.
A great cheer went up from the people who had gath-
ered on the shore. It was Maynard's vessel, and had
Blackbeard's bloody head on the bow and thirteen
pirates as prisoners in the hold.
The people were glad to see that the dreaded pirate
had been slain and his band broken up. Lieutenant
Maynard was received with every mark of favor. After
staying there for a day or two, he sailed away to Vir-
ginia to carry the news of his success.
For many years after the death of Blackbeard the
town had nothing to hinder its growth. People from
all over the colony came there to live, and it soon be-
came the leading town of the colony and a center of
trade and commerce.
40 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
One day, while Bath was at its greatest prosperity, a
noted preacher came there. This was the Rev. George
Whitefield, who had preached to large crowds in Eng-
land and the colonies. Wherever he went people flocked
to hear him. His preaching was a subject of conversa-
tion everywhere. At Bath it was quite different. No-
body seemed anxious to hear his sermons. It is even
said that people mocked and made fun of him. No
doubt this good man thought the people were very
great sinners, and doubtless they were.
It is said that, after he had been mistreated by the
people, he went out into the street, shook the dust from
his feet, pronounced a curse upon the town, and left.
It is not positively known that he did this, but people
living to-day in that part of the country tell it as the
There are several interesting objects in Bath. Among
them is the old brick church that was built in colonial
times. The bricks used in building it were brought
from England. It is an object of much interest to those
who visit the old town.
'AN OLD-TIME SCHOOL 41
AN OLD-TIME SCHOOL
There is a neighborhood in Halifax county called
Dumpling Town. No one has ever been able to tell why
it is called by that name. It may be because the people
living there were very fond of apple dumplings. There
is an old legend which says that the housekeepers of
that part of the county, a long time ago, had a contest
to decide who could cook the largest dumpling. People
from far and near came to see the dumplings, which
were of all sizes, from the tiniest apple to the largest
cooking pot. There were dumplings round and dump-
lings long, dumplings small and dumplings large. It
was a great day for dumplings. If this story is true,
then the place has a good right to its name. But no one
knows whether it is true or not.
About a hundred years ago there lived in that neigh-
borhood a teacher whose name was Thomas Peterson.
The boys called him "Old Peters." He was a very
learned man, and knew a great deal of Latin and Greek.
He taught for six months in the year and hunted and
fished the other six. As a consequence he was just as
good a hunter as he was a teacher.
In those days there were no fine schoolhouses as
42 iVORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
there are now. In many neighborhoods there were no
schoolhouses at all. The house in which "Old Peters"
taught was built of logs and had one room, one door and
two windows. The floor was laid with slabs, split from
pine trees, and had large cracks in it. The windows
were made by sawing through a log on each side of the
room. These windows let in some light, but they also
let in more cold. Between the logs earth and sticks had
been placed to keep out the cold winds, but on warm
days the boys would punch the earth out to get fresh
air. So there was not much left to protect the children
from the winter winds except a great roaring fire in
The fireplace took up nearly the whole of one end of
the room. In cold weather large logs were piled upon
the fire until the flames leaped up the chimney and the
heat went into all parts of the room. At such times
no one could sit in the chimney corner, for it was as
hot as a furnace. But when the fire was not so large
half a dozen children could sit in the corner at the same
Very little furniture was in the room. The teacher's
table and stool were in one corner. Benches without
backs were placed here and there for the pupils to sit
on. There was a long desk built along the wall, which
AN OLD-TIME SCHOOL 43
was used as a writing desk for children who had ad-
vanced that far in learning. Those in the lower grades
had to sit on the benches without desks and study their
books. They often spent a good deal of the time in
drawing pictures on their slates.
Usually things went well in this school, for the pupils
all feared "Old Peters" and learned their lessons well.
But sometimes when Mr. Peterson had the dyspepsia
everything seemed to go wrong. The boys did not know
their lessons and the girls whispered too much.
One day "Old Peters" came into the schoolroom with
a frown on his face. The boys and girls began to feel
uneasy, and kept watching the large bundle of switches
that he had near his desk. It was plain that he was in
a bad humor, and that trouble was ahead.
"Get your spelling lesson!" said the master, and
every pupil began to study the lesson aloud and sway
back and forth in his seat to keep time with the sylla-
bles. That was the style in those days. One boy knew
his lesson already. He moved back and forth with the
others, but while they were studying their lessons he
was saying, "Old Peters, Old Pete, Old Peters." But
alas! just as he was saying the last name, all the others
ceased to speak and his words sounded out loud and
4-4 NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY STORIES
All the children laughed out. "Old Peters" saw the
little rascal and called him up to the desk. He came
trembling. The master reached for his switch and gave
him seieral severe blows. Then he made the boy stand
up in the corner on one foot.
When the class came up to recite, the boy who had
been punished could not spell the words, because he
was scared. He had lost all his knowledge. "Old
Peters" was angry, and put the dunce cap on the boy's
head. He then had to stand on the dunce stool for the
other children to laugh at. The poor boy sobbed and
groaned for a long time, but this did not soften the
master's heart. He made one of the others hold his
book -bag under the boy's face to catch his tears. This
was worse than the other punishment, and the boy al-
most died with shame.
This was the way he punished for misbehavior, or for
not knowing a lesson. If two boys got into a quarrel
with each other, he would have them settle their diffi-
culty at recess, and he did it in this way : Each boy was
given a stout hickory switch, and they had to play
"wrap jacket" until one had enough. Sometimes the
fight would be kept up until the switches were worn
out. Then others would be gotten and the battle con-
AN OLD-TIME SCHOOL "45
tinned until one of the boys cried "enough." Then the
master declared the fight ended and named the winner.
At Christmas time it was the custom for the boys to
shut the teacher out, and in that way get a holiday.
One morning, about a week before Christmas, all the
boys reached the schoolhouse before the master and
locked the door. Then they waited for "Old Peters."
When he came he found the door and windows fastened.
He knew what was up, and joined in the fun.
Presently a boy on the inside said : "We must have a
holiday for ten days. Will you give it to us?"
"No," said the master.
"Then we will duck you," said all the boys; and the
door was opened and the boys ran out. "Old Peters"
ran down the road with the crowd at his heels. Soon
they caught him and started for the creek near by; but
before they got to the water he gave in and promised a
holiday. Then all went back to the house, and the mas-
ter dismissed school until after the Christmas holidays.
This was one of the old schools of the long ago. There
were many others in North Carolina like it. They were
small and unfurnished, but they did much good in train-
ing our forefathers to become useful citizens.
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